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date: 16 February 2019

(p. lxxiii) List of Abbreviations

(p. lxxiii) List of Abbreviations

AC

Appeals Chamber

ACHPR

African Court of Human and People’s Rights

ACHR

American Convention on Human Rights

AFDI

Annuaire français de droit international

AFRC

Armed Forces Revolutionary Council

AJIL

American Journal of International law

AMIB

African Mission in Burundi

AMIS

African Union Mission in Sudan

AMW Manual

Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare, with Commentary (2010)

AP I

Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions (1977)

AP II

Additional Protocol II to the 1949 Geneva Conventions (1977)

AP III

Additional Protocol III to the 1949 Geneva Conventions (2005)

ATT

Arms Trade Treaty

AU

African Union

BELISI

Peace-Truce Monitoring Group in Bougainville

BVR

Beyond Visual Range

BYBIL

British Yearbook of International Law

CA 3

Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions

CanYIL

Canadian Yearbook of International Law

CAR

Central African Republic

CARICOM

Caribbean Community and Common Market

CAT

UN Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment

CCW

Convention on Conventional Weapons

CDDH

The Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts

CSDP

Common Security and Defense Policy

CESCR

Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights

CETS

Council of Europe Treaty Series (p. lxxiv)

CFSP

Common Foreign and Security Policy

CIA

Central Intelligence Agency

CIL

customary international law

CIS

Commonwealth of Independent States

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna

CIVPOL

UN Civilian Police

CM

Committee of Ministers

CMS

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

COE

Contingent-Owned Equipment

COIN

Counterinsurgency

Commentary GC I

Commentary on the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Vol. I (Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 1952)

Commentary GC II

Commentary on the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Vol. II ((Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 1960)

Commentary GC III

Commentary on the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War ((Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 1960)

Commentary GC IV

Commentary on the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 Relative to the Protection of Civilian in Time of War ((Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 1958)

Commentary AP I and II

Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (Geneva/Dordrecht: International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)/Martinus Nijihoff Publishers, 1987)

CRC

Convention on the Rights of Child

CRPD

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

CRS

Congressional Research Series

CSRT

Combatant Status Review Tribunal

D.Md

US District Court for the District of Maryland

DAM

Department of Administration and Management

DC Cir.

US Circuit Court for the District of Columbia

DCAF

Democratic Control of Armed Forces

DDC

US District Court for the District of Columbia.

DDR

disarmament, demobilization, reintegration (p. lxxv)

DFS

United Nations Department of Field Support

DHA

Department of Humanitarian Affairs

DLR

Dominion Law Reports

DOJ

(US) Department of Justice

DPA

Department of Political Affairs

DPH

direct participation in hostilities

DPKO

United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations

DRC

Democratic Republic of the Congo

ECCC

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

ECHR

European Convention on Human Rights

ECOMOG

Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group

ECOWAS

Economic Community of West African States

ECtHR

European Court of Human Rights

ED VA

Eastern District of Virginia

EEZ

Exclusive Economic Zone

EHRR

European Human Rights Reports

EJIL

European Journal of International Law

ENMOD Convention

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

EO

Executive Order

ESC

Economic and Social Council

ESCOR

Economic and Social Council Official Records

ETS

European Treaty Series

EU NAVFOR ATALANTA

European Union Naval Force Somalia – Operation Atalanta

EU

European Union

EUFOR

European Union Force

EULEX

European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo

EWHC

High Court of Justice of England and Wales

FACA

Central African Republic Armed Forces

FAFN

Forces Nouvelles de Côte d’Ivoire

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FARC

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia

FARDC

Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo

FF

Feuille Fédérale

FM

Field Manual

FNI

Front for National Integration

FPLC

Forces Patriotiques pour la libération du Congo

FR

Federal Register

FRPI

Forces de Résistance Patriotique d’Ituri

FSA

Free Syrian Army (p. lxxvi)

FSIA

Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976

FYROM

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

GAO

Government Accountability Office

GAOR

General Assembly Official Records

GC I

Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field

GC II

Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea

GC III

Convention (III) Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War

GC IV

Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War

GCs

Geneva Conventions

GPRA

Gouvernement provisoire de la République algérienne

GPS

Global Positioning System

GWOT

Global War on Terror

GYIL

German Yearbook of International Law

HC V

Hague Convention of 1907 Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land

HC XIII

Hague Convention of 1907 Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War

HCJ

Israeli High Court of Justice

HPCR

Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University

HRCttee

United Nations Human Rights Committee

HRL

Human Rights Law

HRW

Human Rights Watch

HuV

Humanitäres Völkerrecht

HVO

Croat Defence Council

IAC

international armed conflict

IACHR

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

IACtHR

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

ICC

International Criminal Court

ICCPR

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICERD

International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination

ICESCR

International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights

ICHRP

International Council on Human Rights Policy

ICISS

International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (p. lxxvii)

ICJ

International Court of Justice

ICLQ

International and Comparative Law Quarterly

ICRC

International Committee of the Red Cross

ICSID

International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes

ICTR

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

ICTY

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

IDI

Institut de droit international

IDP

internally displaced persons

IEDs

improvised explosive devices

IFOR/ SFOR

Implementation Force/Stabilization Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina

IHL

international humanitarian law

IHLRI

International Humanitarian Law Research Initiative

IHRL

international human rights law

IIHL

San Remo Institute for International Humanitarian Law

ILC

International Law Commission

ILM

International Legal Materials

ILR

International Law Reports

IMT

International Military Tribunal

IMTFE

International Military Tribunal for the Far East

INTERFET

the International Force in East Timor

IRA

Irish Republican Army

IRRC

International Review of the Red Cross

ISAF

International Security Assistance Force

IsrYBHR

Israel Yearbook on Human Rights

JAIL

Japanese Annual of International Law

JDI

Journal du Droit International

JEM

Justice and Equality Movement

JICJ

Journal of International Criminal Justice

KFOR

Kosovo Force

LJIL

Leiden Journal of International Law

LNTS

League of Nations Treaty Series

LOAC

law of armed conflict

LOC

lines of communication

LOSC

United Nations Law of the Sea Convention

LRTAP

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

LTTE

Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

MARPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution by Ships

MCA

Military Commissions Act (2006)

MINURCA

United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic

MINURSO

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (p. lxxviii)

MISAB

Mission Interafricaine de Surveillance des Accords de Bangui

MLC

Movement for the Liberation of Congo

MONUC

Mission de Organisation des Nations Unies en République Démocratique du Congo

MPEPIL

The Max Plank Encyclopedia of Public International Law

MWC

United Nations International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

N.D. Ill.

US District Court for the Northern District of Illinois

NAM

non-aligned movement

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NDC

Nduma Defence of Congo

NGO

non-governmental organization

NIAC

non-international armed conflict

NILR

Netherlands International Law Review

NLA

National Liberation Army

NOTAM

Notice to Airman

NOTMAR

Notice to Mariners

NUPI

Norwegian Institute of Foreign Affairs

NWP

Naval Warfare Publication

NYT

New York Times

NZAR

New Zealand Administrative Reports

OAS

Organization of American States

OASTS

Organization of American States Treaty Series

OAU (Convention)

Organization of African Unity

OCHA

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

ODI

Overseas Development Institute

ODIHR

Office of Democratic Institutions and Human Rights

OIC

Organization of Islamic Cooperation

OILPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil

OJEC

Official Journal of the European Union

OMB

Office of Management and Budget

ONUC

Opération des Nations unies au Congo

OPCAT

Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture

OSCE

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

OTP

Office of the Prosecutor

PCA

Permanent Court of Arbitration

PCAT

Public Committee Against Torture

PCIJ (series)

Permanent Court of International Justice

PGM

Precision Guided Munition (p. lxxix)

PIRA

Provisional Irish Republican Army

PLO

Palestine Liberation Organization

PMC

private military company

PMSC

private military and security companies

POW

prisoner of war

PSF

UN Rapid Deployment Police and Security Force

PSO

Peace Support Operation

PUSIC

Party for the Unification and Safeguarding of the Integrity of the Congo

R2P

Responsibility to Protect

RCADI

Recueil de Cours de l’Académie de Droit International de la Haye

RGDIP

Revue Générale de Droit International Public

RIAA

Reports of International Arbitral Awards

RMC

Rules for Military Commissions

ROE

Rules of Engagement

RSC

Revised Statutes of Canada

RUF

Revolutionary United Front

RUSI

Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies

SCR

Supreme Court Reports

SCSL

Special Court for Sierra Leone

SEESAC

South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons

SIPRI

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

SIrUS

Superfluous Injury and Unnecessary Suffering (ICRC Project)

SOFA

Status of Forces Agreement

SSR

security sector reform

STUFTS

Ships Taken Up From Trade

SVP

Swiss People’s Party

TAM

Tribunal Arbitral Mixte

TC

Trial Chamber

TCN

Third Country National

TEU

Treaty on the European Union

TS

Treaty Series

TWC

Trials of War Criminals

UCAS

Unmanned Combat Aerial Systems

UCIHL

University Center for International Humanitarian Law

UCK (KLA)

Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës (Kosovo Liberation Army)

UCMJ

Uniform Code of Military Justice

UDHR

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (p. lxxx)

UKAIT

United Kingdom Asylum and Immigration Tribunal

UKHL

United Kingdom House of Lords

UN GAOR

General Assembly Official Records

UN

United Nations

UNAMID

United Nations-African Union Hybrid Mission in Darfur

UNAMIR

United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda

UNAVEM III

United Nations Angola Verification Mission

UNCIO

UN Conference on International Organization

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNDSS

United Nations Department for Safety and Security

UNEF/UNEF II

United Nations Emergency Force/Second United Nations Emergency Force

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNFICYP

United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

UNHCHR

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

UNHCR

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNICEF:

United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund

UNIFIL

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

UNIIIC

United Nations International Independent Investigative Commission

UNMIH

Multinational Interim Force in Haiti

UNMIK

United Nations Mission in Kosovo

UNMIS

United Nations Mission in Sudan

UNOCI

United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire

UNOSOM II

United Nations Operation in Somalia II

UNPROFOR

United Nations Protection Force

UNSAS

The United Nations Standby Arrangements System

UNSC

United Nations Security Council

UNSF

United Nations Security Forces

UNTAC

United Nations Transition Authority in Cambodia

UNTEA

United Nations Temporary Executive Authority

UNTS

United Nations Treaty Series

UPC

Union of Congolese Patriots

USC

US Code

USV

Unmanned Seagoing Vessel

VCLT

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

WLR

Weekly Law Reports (UK)

WMD

Weapons of Mass Destruction

YIHL

Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law

YILC

Yearbook of the International Law Commission