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The Accuracy of Opinion Polling and its Relation to its Future  

Michael Traugott

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This chapter discusses the concept of accuracy and how to measure it. It presents a chronology of the accuracy of the presidential pre-election polls during the 2008 election, and then ... More

Activists, Influence, and Representation in American Elections  

Walter J. Stone

Print publication date:
Jan 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article describes the place of party activists in the electoral process, with attention to questions about whether and how they distort processes of electoral representation in the ... More

African American Legal Status from Reconstruction Law to the Nadir of Jim Crow: 1865–1919  

Lisa Crooms-Robinson

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
As Emancipation and Reconstruction eliminated much of the legal foundation of slavery, states and individuals became increasingly concerned about preserving the racial integrity of ... More

African American Legal Status from the Harlem Renaissance through World War II  

Lisa Crooms-Robinson

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
At the end of World War I, whites tried to put blacks back in their place. They found, however, that the place of African Americans had changed. The Harlem Renaissance represented the ... More

African American Politics and Citizenship, 1865–Present: An Overview  

Michael C. Dawson

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Black politics in the United States since the end of the Civil War has been centered on the quest for inclusion that King, Douglass, and Shklar describe and has at its goal not only the ... More

The African American Psyche, 1865–Present: An Overview  

Claude Steele and Jennifer Richeson

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
There are multiple possible views of the Black American psyche. But in the science that focuses on the psyche, the science of psychology, there has really been only variants of one view: ... More

African American Women: Intersectionality in Politics  

Jamila Celestine Michener, Andrew Dilts, and Cathy J. Cohen

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Political participation has been a fundamental constant in the lives of African American people. Whether it is voting, membership in social/political community organizations, or ... More

African-American Political Participation  

Tasha S. Philpot and Hanes Walton Jr.

Online publication date:
Aug 2014
This chapter describes the evolution of African-American political participation. Beginning with early findings in Black political participation, it discusses the major paradigm shifts in ... More

Afro-descendants and Indigenous Rights  

Juliet Hooker

Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Indigenous rights are arguably the most successfully institutionalized form of minority rights in international law today. Currently, Indigenous rights provide greater protections ... More

Agency Design and Evolution  

Amy B. Zegart

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article describes the insights and limitations of rational choice institutionalism in political science. It then shows that organization theory offers insights into agency evolution ... More

Agency Theory and the Bureaucracy  

B. Dan Wood

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article starts by presenting a basic description of agency theory. This theory has its roots in economics and business management. It then reports an important stream of public ... More

Alliances, Military Basing, and Logistics  

Marc C. Vielledent

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The United States has long enjoyed an essentially unopposed ability to project power and sustain its security forces dispersed throughout the world. However, the uncertainty facing the ... More

America’s Foreign Policy Traditions  

Henry R. Nau

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Dec 2017
There are four standard American foreign policy traditions, and they have existed since the beginning of the republic. The traditions include isolationists/nationalists like George ... More

America’s New Racial/Ethnic Diversity: Immigration, Intermarriage, and Multicultural Identification in the Twenty-first Century  

Jennifer Lee and Frank D. Bean

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
The United States is more racially/ethnically diverse than at any point in the country’s history as a result of immigration, intermarriage, and multiracial identification. The Latino and ... More

An American Conundrum: Race, Sociology, And The African American Road To Citizenship  

Lawrence D. Bobo

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The question of race lies at the heart of one of the great debates of American ideas and scholarly discourse. At one end of this debate we can find those who argue for the American Liberal ... More

American Electoral Practices in Comparative Perspective  

Mark N. Franklin and Till Weber

Print publication date:
Feb 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article concentrates on three areas in which American elections have features that are illuminated by voting behavior in countries with somewhat different features. These features are ... More

American Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations  

Alberta M. Sbragia

Print publication date:
Jun 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article provides an analysis of the shape of American federalism. The first section looks at territorial politics, and is followed by a discussion of territorial governments and ... More

American Political Development and Political History  

Richard R. John

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
This essay traces the long and productive relationship between two genres of historical writing: American political development (or APD) and American political history. It is written ... More

American Political Parties: History, Voters, Critical Elections, and Party Systems  

Joel H. Silbey

Print publication date:
Jan 2010
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article provides a sweeping analysis of the history of American political parties. It specifically uses the lens of critical election theory to explore the scholarly treatment of the ... More

The American Presidency and Environmental Policy  

Norman J. Vig

Print publication date:
Oct 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This article begins with a review of research on environmental policy making by different presidents. It classifies presidents into three categories, based primarily on their environmental ... More

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