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Adam Smith and Marx  

Spencer Pack

Print publication date:
May 2013
Online publication date:
Jul 2013
This chapter outlines Marx’s general attitude towards Smith. It argues that Marx was a close reader of and that he generally admired Smith’s work. The chapter outlines how Marx criticizes various ... More

Adam Smith on Women  

Maureen Harkin

Print publication date:
May 2013
Online publication date:
Jul 2013
Women are largely absent from the economic system Smith lays out in . This account of women in Smith thus focuses primarily on analysis of and its discussion of women as subjects and objects of ... More

Adult Weight and Height of Native Populations  

Asher Rosinger and Ricardo Godoy

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Weight and height are critical indicators of short- and long-term human nutrition and health. This chapter reviews secular trends of weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) from studies ... More

Africa’s Demographic Transition and Economic Prospects  

Jeffrey D. Sachs

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
Sub-Saharan Africa’s opportunity to escape from poverty is real and opportune, but the delayed demographic transition to low mortality and low fertility poses a serious risk. Without a ... More

Age and Performance Under Pressure: Golfers on the LPGA Tour  

Harold O. Fried and Loren W. Tauer

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article explores how well an individual manages his or her own talent to achieve high performance in an individual sport. Its setting is the Ladies Professional Golf Association ... More

Age Compositional Shifts and Changing Intergenerational Transfers in Selected Asian Countries  

Naohiro Ogawa

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Feb 2014
This chapter examines the changes in demographics in selected Asian Pacific countries and traces the impacts of those changes for intergenerational transfers. It provides detailed ... More

Biological Measures of Well-Being  

Richard H. Steckel

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
Beginning with Bismarck’s Germany in the late 19th century, nations gave increasing attention to measures of well-being while traveling the path to welfare states of the 20th century. ... More

Biology and Gender in the Labor Market  

Deborah A. Cobb-Clark

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2017
This article explores whether new research linking economic decision-making to human biology provides an explanation for gendered labor market outcomes, in particular the gender wage gap. ... More

Biomarkers as Inputs  

Steven Lehrer

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
This chapter provides an overview of research primarily within the discipline of economics that empirically examines how biomarkers influences specific health and socioeconomic outcomes. ... More

Birth Weight as an Indicator of Human Welfare  

W. Peter Ward

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Birth weight is a biometric measure of well-being widely used as an infant health indicator. It also offers insights into maternal and population health more generally. The most common ... More

The Bosman Ruling and Labor Mobility in Football (Soccer)  

John Goddard, Peter J. Sloane, and John O. S. Wilson

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter reviews the historical development of free agency in professional football, using the English leagues as representative of what has happened in Europe, and then summarizes ... More

Business Model Innovation and Replication: Implications for the Measurement of Productivity  

Roberto Garcia-Castro, Joan Enric Ricart, Marvin B. Lieberman, and Natarajan Balasubramanian

Print publication date:
Sep 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Productivity gains play a crucial role in value creation and distribution in firms. This chapter connects the strategy framework of value creation and value capture with the tools from the ... More

Canadian Prostitution Law: History and Market Impacts  

Lauren Jones

Print publication date:
Oct 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
This chapter reviews the history of prostitution law in Canada. It begins with a review of relevant literature on the history and policy of the sex trade in Canada, along with current laws ... More

The Care Penalty and Gender Inequality  

Nancy Folbre

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2017
This article explains why care work often imposes a financial penalty that contributes to gender inequality. The work of caring for others—whether unpaid or paid—often involves more ... More

Career Duration in Professional Football: The Case of German Soccer Referees  

Bernd Frick

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter discusses the institutional framework and the nomination procedure that is currently applied in the German “Bundesliga” (GBL), and then provides the data and some descriptive ... More

Caste and Upward Mobility  

Vegard Iversen

Print publication date:
Mar 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
A key question confronting India, well into the post-iberalization era, is whether—and if so, why—the traditional institution of caste may be beginning to lose its grip. It remains a fact ... More

The Causes and Consequences of Increased Female Education and Labor Force Participation in Developing Countries  

Rachel Heath and Seema Jayachandran

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Two important recent trends in most developing countries are the rise in female labor force participation and the closing of gender gaps in school enrollment. This article begins by ... More

Changes in Income Distribution in Brazil  

Rodolfo Hoffmann

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Income inequality in Brazil, already high, increased after the military coup of 1964 and remained very high even after democratization in the 1980s. It decreased substantially in the ... More

Children’s Anthropometrics and Later Disease Incidence  

Karri Silventoinen

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
Anthropometric measures in childhood predict the risk of metabolic diseases decades later. Low birthweight and short stature are associated with higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases ... More

Climate Change and Intergenerational Well-Being  

Jeffrey D. Sachs

Print publication date:
Jan 2015
Online publication date:
May 2015
The problem of climate change is typically discussed as a problem of intergenerational tradeoffs. Typically, it is supposed that the current generations must make sacrifices today for the ... More

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