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Access and Use of Contraception and Its Effects on Women’s Outcomes in the United States  

Martha J. Bailey and Jason M. Lindo

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Changes in childbearing affect almost every aspect of human existence. Over the last fifty years, American women have experienced dramatic changes in the ease and convenience of timing and ... More

Adult Weight and Height of Native Populations  

Asher Rosinger and Ricardo Godoy

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Weight and height are critical indicators of short- and long-term human nutrition and health. This chapter reviews secular trends of weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) from studies ... More

The African Enigma: The Mystery of Tall African Adults Despite Low National Incomes Revisited  

Alexander Moradi and Kalle Hirvonen

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
African adult populations are remarkably tall for the low income levels that prevail at the country level. The average African woman is about 158.5 cm tall, whereas the low gross domestic ... More

Aggressive Elites and Vulnerable Entrepreneurs: Trust and Cooperation in the Shadow of Conflict  

Halvor Mehlum and Karl Moene

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article explores the tendency for poverty and conflict, as well as for prosperity and peace, to reinforce one another, examining two specific factors. One is the type of rents that ... More

Agricultural Policy and Childhood Obesity  

John Cawley and Barrett Kirwan

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter investigates the extent to which agricultural policies contribute to childhood obesity. It starts by exploring the policies that directly affect production, such as ... More

The Alleviation of Poverty: How Far Have We Come?  

Robert D. Plotnick

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article assesses poverty rates in the United States. It examines data from 1965 to 2010 on alternative measures of poverty, which include market poverty, adjusted income poverty, relative ... More

Analyzing Uncertainty in Cost-effectiveness For Decision-making  

Susan Griffin and Karl Claxton

Print publication date:
Apr 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is intended to help collective purchasers of health care to determine which interventions to prioritize, by ranking them according to the cost of each ... More

Antebellum Puzzle: The Decline in Heights at the Onset of Modern Economic Growth  

Lee A. Craig

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Since the late 18th century the long-run trend in economic growth—conventionally measured by real gross domestic product, income, and wages—has been positive in the United States and ... More

The Anthropology of Obesity  

Amanda L. Thompson and Penny Gordon-Larsen

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter first offers a description of anthropological approaches to the study of obesity, and then provides several theoretical models used to study obesity, with key examples of each ... More

The Anthropometric History of the Mediterranean World  

Brian A’Hearn

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Long-run height series for several southern European countries stagnate or decline from the early 18th to the mid-19th century. Read jointly with estimates of gross domestic product (GDP) ... More

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