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Access and Use of Contraception and Its Effects on Women’s Outcomes in the United States  

Martha J. Bailey and Jason M. Lindo

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Changes in childbearing affect almost every aspect of human existence. Over the last fifty years, American women have experienced dramatic changes in the ease and convenience of timing and ... More

Adult Weight and Height of Native Populations  

Asher Rosinger and Ricardo Godoy

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Weight and height are critical indicators of short- and long-term human nutrition and health. This chapter reviews secular trends of weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) from studies ... More

The African Enigma: The Mystery of Tall African Adults Despite Low National Incomes Revisited  

Alexander Moradi and Kalle Hirvonen

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
African adult populations are remarkably tall for the low income levels that prevail at the country level. The average African woman is about 158.5 cm tall, whereas the low gross domestic ... More

Aggressive Elites and Vulnerable Entrepreneurs: Trust and Cooperation in the Shadow of Conflict  

Halvor Mehlum and Karl Moene

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article explores the tendency for poverty and conflict, as well as for prosperity and peace, to reinforce one another, examining two specific factors. One is the type of rents that ... More

Agricultural Policy and Childhood Obesity  

John Cawley and Barrett Kirwan

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter investigates the extent to which agricultural policies contribute to childhood obesity. It starts by exploring the policies that directly affect production, such as ... More

The Alleviation of Poverty: How Far Have We Come?  

Robert D. Plotnick

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article assesses poverty rates in the United States. It examines data from 1965 to 2010 on alternative measures of poverty, which include market poverty, adjusted income poverty, relative ... More

Analyzing Uncertainty in Cost-effectiveness For Decision-making  

Susan Griffin and Karl Claxton

Print publication date:
Apr 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is intended to help collective purchasers of health care to determine which interventions to prioritize, by ranking them according to the cost of each ... More

Antebellum Puzzle: The Decline in Heights at the Onset of Modern Economic Growth  

Lee A. Craig

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Since the late 18th century the long-run trend in economic growth—conventionally measured by real gross domestic product, income, and wages—has been positive in the United States and ... More

The Anthropology of Obesity  

Amanda L. Thompson and Penny Gordon-Larsen

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter first offers a description of anthropological approaches to the study of obesity, and then provides several theoretical models used to study obesity, with key examples of each ... More

The Anthropometric History of the Mediterranean World  

Brian A’Hearn

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Long-run height series for several southern European countries stagnate or decline from the early 18th to the mid-19th century. Read jointly with estimates of gross domestic product (GDP) ... More

Anti-Obesity Drugs and Bariatric Surgery  

William Encinosa, Dongyi (Tony) Du, and Didem Bernard

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter describes the startlingly good outcomes associated with bariatric surgery, such as rapid improvement or even resolution of high blood pressure and Type II diabetes in almost ... More

Antipoverty Policy: The Role of Individualist and Structural Perspectives  

William A. Darity Jr., Mary Lopez, Olugbenga Ajilore, and Leslie Wallace

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article examines how views on why people are poor can influence the design of antipoverty policy. It argues that, broadly speaking, theories of why people are poor fall into two categories. ... More

Antipoverty Programs for Poor Children and Families  

Janet Currie

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article reviews research on the effects of programs that attempt to remediate the effects of poverty on children. It suggests that cash-benefit programs are unlikely to ever do enough to ... More

Are Economists in Over Their Heads?  

Kevin S. O’Neil and Marta Tienda

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
Sociologists see economic decisions as being “embedded” in social relationships, just as psychologists see economic decisions as being embedded in a life of the mind. While the idea of social ... More

An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Antipoverty Programs in the United States  

Yonatan Ben-Shalom, Robert Moffitt, and John Karl Scholz

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article examines the impact of antipoverty programs on income poverty in the United States. Data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation shows that trends in per capita expenditures ... More

Behavioral Economics and Obesity  

Julie S. Downs and George Loewenstein

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter describes different phenomena identified by behavioral economists that can shed light on the problem of obesity. It discusses the limitations of the information-based approach ... More

Behavioral Treatment of Obesity  

Lashanda R. Jones-Corneille, Rebecca M. Stack, and Thomas A. Wadden

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter discusses the behavioral treatment of obesity, including its short- and long-term results and approaches to improve long-term weight management, and also explores obesity ... More

Bias, Stigma, and Discrimination  

Rebecca M. Puhl

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This chapter describes the evidence that men find obese women unattractive, specifically reviewing the evidence of weight bias in multiple settings and its negative impact on quality of ... More

Biological Health Risks and Economic Development  

Elizabeth Frankenberg, Jessica Ho, and Duncan Thomas

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
With populations aging and the epidemic of obesity spreading across the globe, global health risks are shifting toward noncommunicable diseases. Innovative biomarker data from recently ... More

Biological Measures of Well-Being  

Richard H. Steckel

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
Beginning with Bismarck’s Germany in the late 19th century, nations gave increasing attention to measures of well-being while traveling the path to welfare states of the 20th century. ... More

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