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The Death Penalty  

Randall McGowen

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Although the death penalty often appears a timeless question, the last three centuries have witnessed dramatic changes in the frequency and organization of capital punishment in Europe and ... More

General Deterrence  

Robert Apel and Daniel S. Nagin

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article begins with a discussion of key concepts of deterrence. Section II turns to empirical research on general deterrence. It considers the deterrent effect of the penultimate and ... More

Legitimacy and Lawful Policing  

Sanja Kutnjak Ivković

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article is organized as follows. Section I focuses on the concept of police legitimacy, exploring it from the police agency perspective (i.e., why people obey the authority), and ... More

Mercy and Parole in Anglo-American Criminal Justice Systems from the Eighteenth Century to the Twenty-First Century  

Carolyn Strange

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Mercy’s long association with the whims of emperors and monarchs altered with the emergence of republics and democracies in the modern era. Over the nineteenth century mercy became ... More

Norbert Elias, the Civilizing Process, and Punishment  

John Pratt

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The way a society punishes its offenders has become a yardstick by which it can be judged as civilized. In civilized societies, for example, punishment on the human body has become ... More

Perceptual Deterrence Theory  

Ray Paternoster and Ronet Bachman

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
According to deterrence theory in criminology, we are affected by both the costs and rewards that are consequent to our behavior. In other words, we tend to behave based on the expectation ... More

Punishment  

Michael Tonry

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article discusses important ways of thinking about punishment. Section I discusses the history and recent past of work by philosophers and legal theorists. Section II surveys major ... More

Punishment, Justice, and Emotions  

Henrique Carvalho and Anastasia Chamberlen

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
This essay discusses the relation among emotions, punishment, and justice. It reviews theoretical scholarship on the role of punishment in society and sociological research on emotions, ... More

Reassurance, Reinforcement, and Legitimacy  

Matt Matravers

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article considers the point of systems of criminal justice; reviews Émile Durkheim's theory and its application to contemporary societies; reviews the evidence concerning the ways in ... More

Reparation and Restoration  

Kathleen Daly and Gitana Proietti-Scifoni

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article begins with an overview of the varied meanings of reparation, restoration, and restorative justice, as they are applied in domestic and international contexts of law and ... More

Restorative justice and sex offending  

Anne Marie McAlinden

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Jul 2017
This essay examines the use of restorative justice in sexual offending. Restorative forms of intervention have been used in cases of violent or sexual offending, from first-time and ... More

Sentencing high-risk sex offenders: Policy and Legislation  

Karen Harrison

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Jul 2017
This essay considers sex offender legislation in a number of countries, including England and Wales, Germany, and the United States, and details sex offender sentencing provisions in ... More

Sentencing Policies and Practices in California  

Michael Vitiello

This chapter traces sentencing policies and practices in California, including the decision to abandon indeterminate sentencing and the enactment of a sentencing reform statute called ... More

Sentencing Policies and Practices in Minnesota  

Richard S. Frase

This essay evaluates the origins, purposes, operation, and evolution of Minnesota’s sentencing guidelines system, implemented in 1980. Topics examined include key guidelines provisions, ... More

Sentencing Policies and Practices in Pennsylvania: Four Decades of Change  

Jeffery T. Ulmer and Julia A. Laskorunsky

This article outlines the history and evolution of Pennsylvania’s sentencing policies and practices since the adoption of its sentencing guidelines in 1978. Pennsylvania’s sentencing ... More

Sentencing Policies and Practices in Wisconsin  

Michael M. O'Hear

This essay provides an overview of sentencing policies and practices in the state of Wisconsin and considers their impact on the state’s imprisonment rate. Current policies and practices ... More

Theories of Proportionality and Desert  

Richard S. Frase

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article discusses the various theories of proportionality. The first section takes a look at the retributive proportionality principles, two varieties of retributive theory, and the ... More

Useful versus Harmful Prison Policies  

John Wooldredge

Print publication date:
May 2018
Online publication date:
Mar 2017
This chapter provides a synthesis of some of the useful prison policies discussed throughout this volume. The sources of useful versus harmful policies in addition to the implications of ... More

Zero Tolerance and Policing  

Jack R. Greene

Print publication date:
Apr 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
This essay examines the rise of zero-tolerance policies in policing and in other parts of the social world with the aim of considering how such policies have come about, what they ... More

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