The purpose of this article is to examine the relationships between absenteeism and presenteeism and employee well-being. Absenteeism is the failure to report for work as scheduled. Presenteeism is showing up to work when one is ill and the decrement in productivity that follows from this practice. On a continuum, presenteeism stands between full work engagement and absenteeism. This article considers how attendance dynamics are affected by employee well-being. It also considers how attendance dynamics might affect well-being, a less researched subject. It takes a broad stance on what constitutes well-being, encompassing physical, mental, and emotional well-being and assuming that a positively evaluated work experience is conducive to employee well-being. It does not assume that the mere occurrence of either behavior somehow “speaks for itself” as an indicator of well-being.
Ensuring high levels of occupational health and safety remains a significant issue. Detailed accident analyses have highlighted the role played by front-line employees as well as the importance of organizational and managerial factors. The realization that organizational accidents occur within a cultural and social context has led to the rise in popularity of the concept of safety climate. Safety climate allows the individual to interpret organizational events and processes in relation to personal and organizational safety values and to determine the appropriateness of safety-related behavior. Although safety climate has been included as an element of the healthy work organization, the contribution that a positive safety climate can make to organizational health and well-being is little understood. Developing a fuller understanding of organizational safety climate has important theoretical and research implications, and also remains a significant issue for industry and wider society in terms of practical application.
Thomas N. Ingram, Raymond W. Laforge, and Charles H. Schwepker
This article considers the importance of job stress in the sales force to be an important management concern in many sales organizations. The complex business environment faces salespeople with escalating demands and expectations. There is continuous pressure to perform in the sales forces of most organizations. Stress is further compounded as salespeople regularly face non-routine situations, and often must work without the support that comes with supervision on a daily basis. The objective of this article is to examine the antecedents and consequences of job stress and to consider initiatives for reducing job stress among salespeople. While eliminating job stress in most sales organizations may be unfeasible, impractical, or even undesirable, the major negative effects of job stress require management initiatives to gain a reasonable level of control over salespeople's job stress. Finally, this article also develops a framework of salesperson job stress including antecedents, role stressors, and consequences.
J. Kevin Ford and Ruchi Sinha
Training evaluation is the systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions. A key characteristic of a systematic approach to training evaluation is an emphasis on the continuous use of feedback. This process, which includes both formative and summative evaluation strategies, can aid in identifying, collecting, and providing information to make a variety of instructional decisions. This article reviews the progress which has been made in evaluation science that has particular relevance to workplace training programs. It first focuses on the implications of the changing nature of work for conducting effective training evaluation. Second, the article describes how the field of training evaluation has progressed in terms of criterion development, measurement issues, and methodology issues. Third, it discusses the key challenges that remain in the field which require additional theory development and research.
Postcolonialism provides theoretical resources that speak well to the concerns of critical diversity scholars, notably the interest in culture, power, and the construction of (human) differences. Yet, with notable exceptions, there is a paucity of research on workplace diversity underpinned by postcolonialism. This chapter seeks to animate and advance postcolonial scholarship in critical diversity studies, and responds to calls to revitalize this scholarly sub-field. Based on a review of critical diversity studies (including the few that have used postcolonial perspectives), two recommendations are made to advance postcolonial critiques. First, critical diversity scholars might undertake a closer engagement with psychoanalytic and discursive variants of postcolonial theory to generate complex understandings of the psychological dimensions of (post)colonial subjectivities and the persistence of racism in organizations. Second, scholars might also consider the merits of ‘Southern Theory’ in order to move beyond the noted Eurocentric limits of existing gender and diversity research.
Psychological testing probably touches more people more often than any other application of psychology. On-line testing has made tests more available and more accessible. This article considers the impact the development of the Web has had on employment testing. Its main focus is on the impact the use of remote forms of assessment has had on practice and on the development of new ways of managing the risks associated with assessment “at a distance,” especially in high-stakes situations. The use of the internet for assessment raises many other issues, such as the impact of remote assessment on applicant reactions, implications for the design of robust systems, the use of complex test forms, and on-line simulations, to name but a few.
Psychometrically, affective experience can be represented in two dimensional space. More specific affects cluster at points in this space. These two major dimensions are negative and positive affect. High negative affect relates to the more specific unpleasant affects of anxiety and anger. Its opposite is relaxation. High positive affect relates to more specific pleasant and high activation affects such as enthusiasm. Its opposite relates to the more specific affects of depression and boredom. Because of the pervasive nature of affect, organizational research has investigated many theoretical and applied issues. The topics of this article include: how cognitive processes influence affect; how cognitive processes regulate affective experience; how state affect influences cognitive processes; and the role of trait affect. There are organizational applications in each domain. The article concludes by highlighting directions for research.
Donald M. Truxillo, David M. Cadiz, and Jennifer R. Rineer
This article examines the implications of an aging workforce for human resource management (HRM). It first looks at research and theories relevant to understanding age-related changes at work, including lifespan development theories, changes in work outcomes such as motivation and performance, and the social context for age (e.g., age stereotyping). It then considers the ways that organizations can keep their employees-including those who are aging-satisfied, engaged, productive, and healthy in their jobs in terms of traditional HR practices like recruitment and selection, training, career development, and occupational safety and health. Finally, it offers suggestions on how HRM can take age differences into account and identifies a number of areas for future research.
Annette Risberg and Sine Nørholm Just
Taking as a starting point the assumption that ambiguity is a constitutive condition of organizational practices in general, and, more specifically, practices of diversity, this chapter offers a framework for exploring the practices and perceptions of three forms of ambiguous diversity: strategic ambiguity, contradiction, and ambivalence. Through an illustration of the framework’s empirical applicability, we find that while ambiguity as such is neither inherently good nor bad, the various forms of ambiguity have different potentials for promoting diversity in organizational settings. In particular, expressions of ambivalence seem to be well suited for fostering new and more inclusive practices of diversity.
Tatjana Schnell, Thomas Höge, and Wolfgang G. Weber
This chapter explores the connections between belonging, meaningful work, and the ability of people to fulfill their potential. Drawing on the nexus of two core human qualities, the social and the productive, it is proposed that meaningful work constitutes an arena of practice where this sense of belonging is evoked. Belonging can arise from being part of a group or team at work, where acknowledgment and recognition arise. Although psychological studies have not focused extensively on the construct of belonging, research has examined similar notions such as relatedness, social support, and psychological ownership. However, changes in the workplace such as the growing flexibilization of work and growing economism pose challenges to experiencing belonging and meaningfulness. The chapter outlines the potential “dark side” to belonging, such as the risk of over-identification, the propensity to unethical behaviors, and manipulative managerial strategies.
The boundaryless career type provides a model of career development that appears to have some advantages over traditional occupational or organizational models. In a changing environment, it encourages mobility, flexibility, the development of knowledge and networks, and the taking of responsibility for one's own career. The boundaryless career also resonates effectively with the temporary organization structures and “knowledge workers” becoming characteristic of the new century. It appears a particularly appropriate way of understanding careers in industries, such as film production and software development, that are based on temporary projects rather than permanent structures, but these industries may be merely extreme examples of a wider loosening and crossing of boundaries in the world of work. The organizational career is dead or dying, and boundaryless careers are representative not just of a creative elite of workers, but of the mainstream.
Victor J. Callan and Sandra A. Lawrence
This article aims to outline the context in which engagement and retention crises have arisen in organizations today. It reviews what it means for an employee to be engaged in the workplace; how good levels of engagement result in better mental and physical health and improved job satisfaction; and what psychological conditions might shape engagement. In particular, while acknowledging that many facilitating agents and factors are at work in building employee engagement, this article argues that the transformational leadership behaviors of front-line supervisors play a critical role in determining various conditions that influence employee engagement, and in turn their health, satisfaction, and retention. Finally, this article discusses future directions and implications for employee engagement research, as well as the role of supervisors in shaping the workplace conditions that better meet the needs of workers.
Ståle Einarsen, Stig Berge Matthiesen, and Lars Johan Hauge
Bullying is a complex and multi-causal phenomenon seldom sufficiently explained by one factor alone. A wide range of factors at different explanatory levels may influence why bullying develops and who will be targeted. This article reviews the literature and research findings in this field, which has blossomed during the last ten years. Here, the terms “harassment” and “bullying” are used interchangeably to refer to both these phenomena, namely as the systematic exhibition of aggressive behavior at work directed towards a subordinate, a superior or a co-worker, as well as the perception of being systematically exposed to such mistreatment while at work. The construct of social undermining bears close resemblance to bullying and harassment, involving behavior over time that is intended to hinder someone in their ability to establish and maintain positive interpersonal relationships, as well as damage their work-related success or favorable reputation.
Matthew M. C. Allen
This chapter discusses the contribution of the business systems framework to our understanding of employment relations across different countries. It draws out important distinctions between the business systems framework and the related varieties of capitalism paradigm. Individual business systems as well as the employment relations that are associated with them are discussed in detail. These discussions are buttressed by references and examinations of relevant empirical evidence. This chapter highlights the importance, within the business systems framework, of linking firms’ strategic priorities, the organizational capabilities they (seek) to develop, the types of employment relations policies that they adopt, and their specific institutional context in analyses. Consequently, the ways in which the internationalization of product, capital, and some labour markets affect any particular firm’s institutional setting are likely to become increasingly important within such analyses.
Ryan D. Duffy, Jessica W. England, and Bryan J. Dik
This chapter connects the literatures on callings and meaningful work. It examines the meaningful nature of calling by separating the idea of perceiving a calling from actually living one. It is argued that callings, whether prompted from within the person or externally, underpin meaningful engagement with work at the social or personal level because they provide people with purpose. Those who pursue a calling are shown to experience more meaningful outcomes such as well-being and work satisfaction, but are exposed to the “dark side” of callings too often manifest in workaholism, burnout, and exploitation. Those who perceive a calling, but who choose not to pursue it, can access sources of life meaning through job crafting opportunities but also through workplace interventions, such as critical consciousness training, that may empower them to enact their perceived calling and thus more easily find meaning in work.
Christel Lane and Geoffrey Wood
National institutions are neither tightly coupled, nor do they make for coherent outcomes. There is much, albeit bounded, diversity in socio-economic relations within and between firms. This diversity may reflect specific sectoral or regional dynamics, the uneven consequences of social action, and governmental partiality to specific players. It also reflects broader changes in the global capitalist ecosystem—which, the authors believe, is the product of a long energy transition—and the uneven manner in which national institutions seek to accommodate themselves to this.
Donald Hislop, Carolyn Axtell, and Kevin Daniels
Remote working has many synonyms—such as teleworking, telecommuting, or virtual working. It is often considered to be enabled by advanced information and communications technologies which allow the electronic transfer of information, so that workers can communicate and coordinate tasks in multiple locations and asynchronously. It is the purpose of this article to explore the nature, consequences, and management of remote working. The article starts by examining the incidence of remote working, the major aspects of remote work, and why this form of working is attractive. It then moves on to explore workers' experience of remote work. The article also examines issues in the coordination of remote teams and communication between remote workers. The final section examines the management of remote workers.
Janet Porter and Rosalie Hilde
For years, diversity scholars have been calling for more empirical studies that specifically show how linguistic and non-linguistic practices produce asymmetrical differences between and among social groups. To that end, we show that textual analysis methodologies can provide situational, contextual, and empirical research that demonstrates practices and productions of these differences in organizations and workplaces. We further provide researchers with two overlooked approaches of textual analysis methodology that add a multi-level organizational dimension to studying the production of these differences—critical sensemaking and discourse theory. By establishing and maintaining contextual relevance and casting organization as socially constructed on multiple levels, these two approaches help point to systemic-wide strategies for addressing critical organizational, institutional and societal diversity issues such as discrimination or harassment. This chapter will be useful for the diversity researcher who studies linguistic and non-linguistic practices in organizational, institutional, and social formations.
Andrew J. Noblet and Anthony D. LaMontagne
This article discusses the practical challenges and difficulties in introducing and evaluating organizational interventions. Its overall purpose is to examine the key steps involved in planning, implementing, and evaluating organizational well-being interventions and identify the major challenges confronting coordinators at each stage of the program planning, implementation, and evaluation cycle. It draws on the literature to identify the strategies coordinators can employ to help overcome these challenges. The intervention development and evaluation framework presented in this article, as well as the likely challenges and suggested means of addressing these challenges, have been largely informed by the workplace health promotion and organizational development literature. These disciplines are underpinned by guiding principles and values that have influenced both the content of the planning framework and the methods for overcoming key challenges.
This chapter is about women who have broken into non-traditional, male-dominated work. The overall aim of the chapter is to examine and analyse common pressures and constraints these women experience. These are particularly identified around three areas: the continuing over-representation of women in domestic responsibilities and its impact on their perceived professionalism; structural barriers in the way the occupations are performed; and finally hostile cultural environments within the workplace. It will use four exemplars of non-traditional occupations where the author has conducted qualitative empirical research; Civil Service management, academia, construction engineering, and the priesthood in the Church of England. The Civil Service was feminized but men retained the management of it; academia has been identified as one of the last bastions of male power; construction is the most male occupation after coal mining; and the Church of England refused to ordain women as priests until the 1990s.