Matthew E. Reynolds
5150: On Unethical Privacy is an autobiographical piece where Matthew Reynolds recounts the situation wherein he was involuntarily committed shortly before his 21st birthday. He describes the situation that led to his psychotic break, and the problems his parents had, who he is very close to and have had a large place in his treatment. He was incapable of informed consent and, after being tranquilized, due to his manic depression, he slept for 36 hours wherein neither his parents, physician, psychiatrist, or anybody else were contacted. Finally, his main moral dilemma is discussed. He highlights just what went wrong ethically based on his own memory of events, which he learned of during and after his involuntary committal. His main argument is: “what use is a psychotic patient’s undeniable rights to privacy, if he is incapable of helping himself?” He notes how these systems backfired throughout.
Paige H. Fisher, Susan Nolan, and Magdalena Galazyn
This chapter offers recommendations, evidence-based when possible, on teaching abnormal psychology in an effective and engaging manner. In the first section, we address issues related to the content of an Abnormal Psychology course. We outline the traditional content areas, as well as current topics that are often underemphasized, such as controversies with diagnosis, and international and cross-cultural issues. In the second section, we provide an overview of pedagogical tools that are particularly relevant for an abnormal psychology course, including the use of case material, role-play, and simulation; we provide suggestions on how to use these tools to create a stimulating and interactive classroom. In the third section, we outline ethical issues that can emerge when teaching abnormal psychology, such as informed consent and classroom management of sensitive topics, and offer suggestions for creating an ethical classroom environment.
Abuse of people with disabilities is a substantial problem because of the particular physical, emotional, and sexual vulnerabilities that people with disabilities have, in addition to being vulnerable to the abuse associated with their disabilities. The problem of abuse for the disabled population is complicated by a lack of knowledge in health-care professionals, lack of awareness in people with disabilities themselves, and limited resources for, and barriers to, intervention. In this chapter I will examine the nature of the problem, the types of abuse related to disability, and the vulnerability factors that increase risk. We will look at how to assess for abuse in people with disabilities, the consequences often faced in reporting abuse, and the best practices for assessment. I will also review the limited research on different cognitive, behavioral, or psycho-educational intervention approaches. Given the challenges to successfully evaluating and addressing this problem, mental health providers must have a thorough understanding of this issue.
María Oliva Márquez-González, Andrés Losada, and Rosa Romero-Moreno
Dementia caregiving is associated with negative physical and psychological health consequences. Multicomponent, behavioural, and psychotherapeutic interventions for reducing caregivers’ distress, particularly the cognitive-behavioural ones, present the greatest effect sizes, but nevertheless these effects are only moderate. The third wave of behavioural therapies and, specifically acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), offers interesting therapeutic tools aimed at fostering the acceptance of aversive internal experiences and the commitment to personal values. Given the chronic nature of the caregiving situation and the unchangeability of many of its elements (e.g. feeling sadness or grief), ACT represents a promising and potentially helpful therapeutic approach to help dementia caregivers to decrease their emotional distress. Very few studies have so far analysed the efficacy of ACT or some of its components (e.g. mindfulness) in this population, but these provide some preliminary support for the utility of this approach in improving caregivers’ psychological well-being. Assuming the need for further research in order to consider ACT as an empirically validated therapy for dementia caregivers, in this chapter we analyse, in the context of caregiving, the psychological processes highlighted in the ACT model of psychopathology, such as experiential avoidance, describing examples of them in cases of caregivers we have assisted in our clinical work, and outlining ACT-based therapeutic strategies that we have found useful on a clinical basis for modifying them.
Robert Zettle and Suzanne Gird
Acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions are part of the third generation of cognitive–behavioral therapies (Hayes, 2004). Among these approaches, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) enjoy the greatest empirical support in the treatment and prevention of depression. Despite some similarities, ACT and MBCT differ on philosophical, methodological, and strategic dimensions. Outcome literature is more extensive for MBCT; empirical support for putative therapeutic processes specific to each appears to be stronger for ACT. Increasingly both approaches have been extended into clinical areas previously occupied by the other, with ACT being used for prevention of depression and MBCT for treatment of acute depressive symptoms. These developments have made it possible to indirectly compare their therapeutic impact and suggest shared mechanisms of action. Randomized clinical trials in which ACT and MBCT are directly evaluated on common outcome and process variables are recommended to more fully explicate these comparisons.
Dieter du Plessis
The autobiographical story of Dieter is sketched here to portray his struggle to fit in the worlds of others while living in a world that is created from his luscious and profound imagination, but that is hardly possible, and mostly impossible, for others to grasp or even imagine. In spite of his reading a lot, much intellectual ability and ability with words, Dieter’s inabilities are both subtle and like walking into a brick wall. He is not defined by these limitations, however, even though his identity has been a burden. Instead, he believes, among many other things, in creating endless possibilities through the powers of thought, and heroically wants to share his world through poetry and writings that have not been heard or read before.
Acculturation and Alcohol Use Among Hispanic and Asian American College Students: What Do We Know and Where Could We Go?
Byron L. Zamboanga, Cara C. Tomaso, and P. Priscilla Lui
Many college students, are susceptible to alcohol use and related problems, including Hispanic and Asian Americans. A potential factor contributing to this risk is acculturation, which can be defined as the process of psychological, behavioral, social, and cultural change and adaptation that occurs when individuals or groups from different cultural backgrounds come in contact. This chapter provides a narrative review of the literature examining acculturation and alcohol use among these populations. One key theme to emerge from this review is that the exact direction of the association between these variables is unclear and therefore should be considered with caution. While the existing evidence is relatively limited, gender and, to some extent, ethnic group membership appear to moderate the association between acculturation and alcohol use. Several methodological issues pertaining to the study of acculturation, future research directions, and implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Ana F. Abraído-Lanza, Karen R. Flórez, and Rachel C. Shelton
Despite the many health benefits of physical activity (PA), the majority of Latinos do not meet recommended levels of PA. This chapter provides an overview of research on acculturation and PA among adult Latinos in the United States. It identifies gaps in knowledge concerning the association between acculturation and different types of PA, the joint effects of socioeconomic position and acculturation on PA, and research on gender. It suggests several areas for further research related to acculturation and PA, including an exploration of norms, social networks, and broader social contexts. It concludes that although the bulk of evidence indicates that greater acculturation is associated with increased PA, more complex research designs and greater methodological and conceptual rigor are needed to move forward research in this area.
Floyd Rudmin, Bo Wang, and Joaquim de Castro
Dictionary definitions concur that “acculturation” means second-culture acquisition, but “acculturation” began as a Eurocentric concept that inferior peoples improve themselves by imitating superior peoples. Shadows of this persist despite the acceleration of acculturation research from nine studies per decade in the 1920s to the current rate of more than 6000 per decade. Reviews of this research have noted confused findings and lack of utility. Critics either (1) advocate for qualitative methods because culture, identity, and human experience are too complex for psychometric methods, or (2) recommend new models and new forms of quantitative analysis, or (3) fault research for poor social science practices. Rudmin (2006) has argued that academics’ shared liberal ideology causes collective confirmation bias that shapes research to promote advocacy of bicultural integration. Many future research designs and projects are proposed, including emic studies of rural-urban migration in China and the development of single-case measures of acculturative competence.
Randy O. Frost and Astrid Müller
Accumulating evidence suggests that the overwhelming majority of people with hoarding disorder (HD) acquire excessively. Excessive acquisition in HD is associated with greater severity of symptoms. Compulsive buying and the excessive acquisition of free things are the most frequent forms of acquisition, although a small percentage of individuals engage in stealing. Features thought to be important in the development of hoarding (e.g., indecisiveness, perfectionism) are also associated with excessive acquisition. Some evidence suggests that excessive acquisition may be easier to treat than clutter or difficulty in discarding. A significant number of people with HD, even those who report no present or past difficulties with acquisition, report engaging in behaviors designed to avoid cues for acquiring.