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Broken and Beyond Repair: The American Death Penalty and the Insuperable Obstacles to Reform  

Carol S. Steiker and Jordan M. Steiker

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article explores the tedious and unsuccessful project of controlling the death penalty through constitutional law. It first studies the problems that have surrounded constitutional ... More

Capital Punishment  

Ray Paternoster

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article reviews the landscape of capital punishment as it now exists. Section I discusses the use of capital punishment internationally. Section II, reviews the use and ... More

Charging and Plea Bargaining as Forms of Sentencing Discretion  

Ronald F. Wright

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article shows how charging and plea bargaining can be used as forms of sentencing discretion. It first examines the claims that prosecutorial charging and plea bargaining discretion ... More

The Conundrum of Girls and Juvenile Justice Processing  

Kimberly Kempf‐Leonard

Due to the under-representation of females, public officials have paid less attention to understanding their offending or to developing and assessing prevention and intervention strategies ... More

Crime Victims, Sentencing, and Release from Prison  

Julian V. Roberts

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article explores the role of the victim during sentencing and parole release proceedings in the United States and other common law jurisdictions. It reviews the empirical evidence of ... More

The Dark at the Top of the Stairs: Four Destructive Influences of Capital Punishment on American Criminal Justice  

Franklin E. Zimring and David T. Johnson

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article tries to show how capital punishment can become a destructive influence on American criminal justice. It first determines that due to the availability of the death penalty, ... More

Drug and Other Specialty Courts  

Ojmarrh Mitchell

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article presents an overview of drug and other specialty courts. Section I defines specialty courts and traces their growth in number and types. It also explores the factors that ... More

The Elusive Juvenile Court: Its Origins, Practices, and Re-Inventions  

David S. Tanenhaus

Print publication date:
Dec 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article traces the ideological origins and legal foundations of the juvenile court. It examines juvenile courts at work in the early twentieth century, their guiding principles, and ... More

Female Offenders and Women in Prison  

LaTosha Traylor and Beth Richie

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the steadily increasing number of females being admitted in corrections. It emphasizes the need for gender-based programs inside and outside prisons, and observes ... More

The Front End of the Juvenile Court: Intake and Informal versus Formal Processing  

Daniel P. Mears

Print publication date:
Dec 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article is focused on front-end processing in the juvenile court. The front end of juvenile justice refers to initial court decisions about how to process cases. The article discusses ... More

General Deterrence  

Robert Apel and Daniel S. Nagin

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article begins with a discussion of key concepts of deterrence. Section II turns to empirical research on general deterrence. It considers the deterrent effect of the penultimate and ... More

Identifying, Treating, and Reducing Risk for Offenders with Mental Illness  

Jennifer L. Skeem and Jillian K. Peterson

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article provides a vivid description of how persons with mental illness continually find themselves involved in the corrections system. It first explains how their unique needs are ... More

Increasing Discretionary Prosecutor’s Powers: The Pivotal Role of the Italian Prosecutor in the Pretrial Investigation Phase  

Michele Caianiello

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
This essay considers the increasingly prominent role played by the prosecutor in the Italian criminal justice system, focusing on the investigation and pretrial phase. The assumption is ... More

Investigating and Prosecuting White-Collar Criminals  

Lucian E. Dervan and Ellen S. Podgor

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
This chapter discusses the prosecution of white-collar criminals and outlines the stages of the investigative and judicial process. It notes differences in white-collar cases from those ... More

Jails and Pretrial Release  

Brandon K. Applegate

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article begins with an overview of the jail inmate population. Data reveal the current makeup and important shifts in inmate characteristics. Section II discusses the historical ... More

Jails, Pre-trial Detention, and Short Term Confinement  

Lieutenant Gary F. Cornelius

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article views America's jails using a practitioner's perspective. It first describes how local jails were developed, how they are managed in an overcrowded environment, and how they ... More

Jury Nullification in the United States  

Nancy J. King

Online publication date:
Feb 2015
This essay provides a comprehensive yet compact discussion of jury nullification in the United States. It includes a summary of (a) criminal cases in which juries have deliberately ... More

Lay Adjudication around the World  

Marijke Malsch

Lay adjudication is a widely discussed topic in the present-day debate on legal systems. Around the world, a large variety of types of lay adjudication exists. Almost all countries make ... More

Mandatory Penalties  

Michael Tonry

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article summarizes research on the implementation, operation, and deterrent effects of mandatory sentencing laws. Section I examines research before 1970 while Section II examines the ... More

Probation and Community Penalties  

Stan C. Proband

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Probation remains the most common form of correctional supervision. Well over half of sentenced offenders, over four million at any one time in recent years, are under the control of ... More

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