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Abraham and Authenticity  

Reuven Firestone

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
The Abrahamic religions recognize Abraham as the first to arrive at the truth of monotheism and live out the ideal relationship with God. He is the archetype of the stalwart religious ... More

The Abrahamic Religions as a Modern Concept  

Mark Silk

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
The modern concept of the Abrahamic religions has roots in Christian theology, the academic study of the Near East, and the study of Islam. In the nineteenth century, Protestant ... More

The Allies  

Shlomo Aronson

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The Big Three Allies — Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union — ultimately brought vast military power to bear against the Third Reich, thus obtaining its unconditional ... More

American Jewish History  

Hasia Diner

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
American Jewish history as a field of scholarly inquiry takes as its subject-matter the experience of Jews in the United States and places it within the context of both modern Jewish ... More

The American Jewish Press  

Jonathan D. Sarna

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Since their emergence in the first half of the nineteenth century, Jewish newspapers have helped to shape religious community, tied far-flung American Jews together, and kept them ... More

American Judaism and Race  

Jodi Eichler-Levine

Print publication date:
May 2018
Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Thinking about American Jews, race, and religion entails confronting the instability of those terms. This chapter examines the history of Jews and race in the United States through three ... More

Ancient Jewish and Early Christian Millennialism  

James D. Tabor

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article focuses on ancient Jewish and early Christian millennialism, which are found to be intrinsically inconsistent—there are no specific pointers towards marking the end of time; ... More

Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament  

Gerard J. Norton

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article first gives a schematic outline of the history of the Hebrew text in four stages. It then presents the elements that readers will meet in modern editions of that text. These ... More

Anti-Semitism Research  

Wolfgang Benz

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Anti-Semitism refers to all anti-Jewish statements, tendencies, resentments, attitudes, and actions, regardless of whether they are religiously, racially, socially, or otherwise motivated. ... More

Antisemitism  

Richard S. Levy

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article addresses the phenomenon of organized antisemitism in the sixty years preceding the “Final Solution,” primarily in Germany but with comparisons to contemporaneous developments ... More

Apocalyptic  

Philip Davies

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
In the Old Testament, apocalyptic literature (or simply ‘apocalyptic’, as the genre is often called) might not seem to occupy a prominent place. Only the book of Daniel falls into this ... More

Apocalypticism and Messianism  

Michael A. Knibb

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The beliefs of the movement that lies behind the scrolls were influenced by the eschatological ideas of the early Enochic writings and by the Book of Daniel, and although the movement does ... More

Apocalypticism, Millenarianism, and Messianism  

Lutz Greisiger

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
Apocalyptic phenomena and discourses run as a thread through Jewish, Christian, and Muslim history, playing a lead role during times of transition and ferment. Apocalyptic phenomena ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses archaeology's impact on biblical scholarship, especially over the last two centuries. It describes the Christian pilgrims, explorers, travellers, map makers, and ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the contributions of archaeology to biblical scholarship. Biblical scholarship needs the archaeologist as it needs the anthropologist, the epigraphist, the ... More

Art  

Dora Apel

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Focusing on works by artists such as Rico Lebrun (1900–1964), George Segal (1924–2000), or Jerome Witkin (b. 1939), art critics and art historians have sometimes criticized too realistic ... More

Art, Architecture, and Archaeology  

Lee I. Levine

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article addresses three related, though not identical, academic fields of study that crystallized only in the twentieth century. Beforehand, it had generally been assumed, whether for ... More

Assessing the Text‐Critical Theories of the Hebrew Bible after Qumran  

Ronald S. Hendel

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The biblical texts from Qumran are the oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, dating from the mid-third century BCE through the first century CE. Prior to the discovery of the Qumran ... More

Authoritative Scriptures and the Dead Sea Scrolls  

Timothy H. Lim

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The approach advocated in this article is the understanding of canon as authoritative literature that is binding for the Qumran community. The distinctive features of this approach are: ... More

Authority of Scripture, Tradition, and the Church  

Richard Swinburne

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Christianity, Islam, and Judaism all claim that God has given humans a revelation. Divine revelation may be either of God, or by God of propositional truth. Traditionally Christianity has ... More

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