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Abortion Revisited  

Don Marquis

Print publication date:
Feb 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The three major classical accounts of the morality of abortion are all subject to at least one major problem. Can we do better? This article aims to discuss three accounts that purport to ... More

Advancing Evolutionary Explanations in Economics: The Limited Usefulness of Tinbergen's Four‐Question Classification  

Jack Vromen

Print publication date:
Mar 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
In this article, it is argued that Niko Tinbergen's (1963) four-question classification might be an even better antidote than Mayr's distinction against misunderstandings that hamper ... More

Advertisement for the Philosophy of the Computational Sciences  

Oron Shagrir

Print publication date:
Sep 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2015
This chapter deals with those fields that study computing systems. Among these computational sciences are computer science, computational cognitive science, computational neuroscience, and ... More

After Kuhn  

Philip Kitcher

Print publication date:
Sep 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
This article reviews the impact of Thomas Kuhn’s monograph The Structure of Scientific Revolutions on subsequent work in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. It identifies ... More

Agency and Interventionist Theories  

James F. Woodward

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
Agency and interventionist theories of causation take as their point of departure a common-sense idea about the connection between causation and manipulation: causal relationships are ... More

The Aging Society and the Expansion of Senility: Biotechnological and Treatment Goals  

Stephen G. Post

Print publication date:
Feb 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Of the many topics worthy of discussion regarding older adults and bioethics, two seem to provide an especially pointed opportunity for reflection on our aging society. First, is aging ... More

Agriculture and Agricultural Biotechnology  

David Castle

Print publication date:
Jul 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article explores a number of issues in agriculture and agricultural biotechnology putting a special emphasis within the philosophy of biology which is a fruitful area of study. The ... More

Alchemy and Chemistry  

Anne-Lise Rey

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jun 2016
This chapter focuses on Leibniz’s philosophical reflections on alchemy and chemistry, beginning with his views on chemistry and natural philosophy, then considering his understanding of ... More

Alteration and Persistence: Form and Matter in the Physics and De Generatione et Corruptione  

S. Marc Cohen

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Aristotle's Physics is a study of nature (phusis) and of natural objects (ta phusei). According to him, these objects—either all of them or at least some of them—are in motion. That is, ... More

Animal Behavior  

Stephen J. Crowley and Colin Allen

Print publication date:
Jul 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article focuses on comparative psychology, ethology, and cognitive ethology which explain animal behaviour. The same old questions raised by ancient Greek are discussed by scientists ... More

Animal Experimentation  

Alastair Norcross

Print publication date:
Feb 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article takes the central issue concerning the ethics of animal experimentation to be the moral status of animals. Since most animal experimentation involves treating experimental ... More

Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research  

Hugh LaFollette

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
May 2012
This article discusses the conditions under which it is permissible and advisable to use animals in biomedical experimentation. The “Common View” is that there are moral limits on what we ... More

Animal Mentality: Its Character, Extent, and Moral Significance  

Peter Carruthers

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
May 2012
This article continues the discussion of whether animals possess moral standing, which it considers to be the question of whether they are deserving of our sympathy and concern and whether ... More

Animal Pain and Welfare: Can Pain Sometimes Be Worse for Them than for Us?  

Sahar Akhtar

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
May 2012
This article probes the widely held view in philosophy and the biological sciences that the amount and ways in which a nonhuman animal can experience pain, by comparison to the human ... More

Animals and Ethics in the History of Modern Philosophy  

Aaron Garrett

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
May 2012
This article examines the history of early modern philosophy, principally in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It explains why early modern philosophers and jurists seldom ... More

Animals in Classical and Late Antique Philosophy  

Stephen R. L. Clark

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
May 2012
This article explores a large array of conceptions and theories in the ancient world, with an emphasis on what the ancients thought of both themselves and the other “animals.” The scope is ... More

Animals That Act for Moral Reasons  

Mark Rowlands

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
May 2012
This article argues that some animals are moral subjects in the sense that they can be, and sometimes are, motivated by moral considerations. It argues that there are no empirical or ... More

Animals, Fundamental Moral Standing, and Speciesism  

David Copp

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
May 2012
This article considers whether we have moral duties that are owed directly to animals, or whether all duties regarding animals are derivative from duties we have to human beings. It ... More

Anti‐Reductionism  

John W. Carroll

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
Anti-reductionism is the view that causation cannot be analysed non-nomically and, further, that causation still resists analysis even when the non-causal, nomic concepts are made ... More

Are All Species Equal?  

David Schmidtz

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
May 2012
This article considers the defensibility of “species egalitarianism”—the position that all living things have equal moral standing and therefore all species command our respect. It ... More

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