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‘A Promise Made is a Debt Unpaid’: Nietzsche on the Morality of Commitment and the Commitments of Morality  

Mark Migotti

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article discusses what we can learn about promising and about Nietzsche’s critique of morality from his discussion of sovereign promising in the opening sections of the second essay ... More

Absolute Knowledge and the Ethical Conclusion of the Phenomenology  

Dean Moyar

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Aug 2017
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Jun 2017
Hegel wrote in The Science of Logic that the deduction of the concept of science was accomplished at the end of the Phenomenology of Spirit in ‘Absolute Knowledge.’ This chapter links the ... More

Absolutism  

Mark Goldie

Print publication date:
May 2011
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Sep 2011
Absolutism is a nineteenth-century term designed precisely to address the mismatch between doctrine and power. The intellectual resources of absolutism were far older than the Renaissance ... More

Action and The Will  

John Hyman

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
In Philosophical Investigations, Ludwig Wittgenstein talks about action and the will. The main ideas we need to be acquainted with in order to understand Wittgenstein's remarks on this ... More

The Actual World  

Donald Rutherford

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
This chapter discusses Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s theory of the actual world as the best of all possible worlds. The chapter opens with Leibniz’s response to the two most basic questions ... More

Adam Smith  

James R. Otteson

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Jan 2013
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Apr 2013
The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) is Adam Smith's major contribution to ethical thought. Although it underwent six revisions during his lifetime, its primary arguments did not change, ... More

Aesthetics  

Andreas Speer

Print publication date:
May 2012
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Sep 2012
This article draws some lines that might indicate the direction in which one might consider the notion of medieval aesthetics. It chooses three examples that have always been at the centre ... More

Aesthetics  

Alexander Rueger

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
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May 2011
This article examines how aesthetics became a branch of psychology during the early modern period in which new references to taste, perfection, and harmony reinforced the emphasis on ... More

Aesthetics  

Paul Guyer

Print publication date:
Feb 2015
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May 2015
For most of its history, philosophers employed a cognitivist approach to the nature and value of aesthetic experience. In the eighteenth century, free play and emotional impact were also ... More

Alchemy and Chemistry  

Anne-Lise Rey

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jun 2016
This chapter focuses on Leibniz’s philosophical reflections on alchemy and chemistry, beginning with his views on chemistry and natural philosophy, then considering his understanding of ... More

American Moral Philosophy  

Brad Hooker

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The philosophy of language and philosophy of science were dominant from the middle 1930s for the next twenty-five years. During this period, many leading philosophers felt reluctant to ... More

The American Reception of Hegel (1830–1930)  

John Kaag and Kipton E. Jensen

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Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Jun 2017
This chapter outlines the reception of Hegel in the United States in the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. Hegel dramatically influenced the formation of American ... More

Analysis Situs, the Foundations of Mathematics, and a Geometry of Space  

Vincenzo De Risi

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jun 2015
This chapter focuses on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s writings on analysis situs—a collection of mathematical and philosophical investigations into the foundations, development, and ... More

Analytic Aesthetics  

Peter Lamarque

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Jun 2013
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Oct 2013
Analytic philosophy gave serious attention to aesthetics relatively late and initial encounters were far from auspicious. William Elton’s anthology Aesthetics and Language (1954) marks a ... More

Analytic Philosophy in America  

Scott Soames

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
In understanding the transition to the analytic period in America, it is important to remember that analytic philosophy is neither a fixed body of substantive doctrine, a precise ... More

Analytic Philosophy, the Analytic School, and British Philosophy  

John Skorupski

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
I propose that we distinguish between the ‘Analytic school’ proper—which should be recognized as both a distinctive movement in twentieth-century philosophy and an aspect of ... More

Analytic Political Philosophy  

Jonathan Wolff

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Political philosophy is not, initially, easy to place in terms of the foundation and early development of analytic philosophy. If, following the traditional understanding, one takes ... More

Analytic–Synthetic and A Priori–A Posteriori History  

Brian Weatherson

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Aug 2016
This article focuses on the distinction between analytic truths and synthetic truths (i.e. every truth that isn’t analytic), and between a priori truths and a posteriori truths (i.e. every ... More

Anarchism  

Marshall Shatz

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
Anarchism rejects the state as an inherently despotic institution that must be abolished in order for human nature to flower. This does not mean the absence of social order, however, for ... More

Animal Rights and Political Theory  

Julian Franklin

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
In the ancient world, the idea that killing animals for food is wrong arose mainly from belief in a deep continuity between the animal and human psyche. The underlying thought is that the ... More

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