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The A Priori  

Christopher Peacocke

Print publication date:
Nov 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The existence and nature of the a priori are defining issues for philosophy. A philosopher's attitude to the a priori is a touchstone for his whole approach to the subject. Sometimes, as ... More

‘A Promise Made is a Debt Unpaid’: Nietzsche on the Morality of Commitment and the Commitments of Morality  

Mark Migotti

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article discusses what we can learn about promising and about Nietzsche’s critique of morality from his discussion of sovereign promising in the opening sections of the second essay ... More

‘A Ritual of Discourse’: Conceptualizing and Reonceptualizing the Analytic Relationship  

Judith Hughes

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Freud embarked on his exploration of an unconscious domain hand in hand with his clinical practice. He was thus forced to think deeply about the relationship between doctor and patient. He ... More

Abhidharma Philosophy  

Jan Westerhoff

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This article provides an introduction to Abhidharma philosophy. The Abhidharma is a collection of texts intended to deal with what the Buddha taught. It is one of the three collections ... More

Abortion  

John Harris and Søren Holm

Print publication date:
Sep 2005
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Abortion is one of those classic problems that has been discussed in all of the major ‘fertile periods’ of practical philosophy, from the flourishing of Greek thought, through the medieval ... More

Abortion and Death  

Don Marquis

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This chapter, which examines views about abortion and death, discusses claims about abortion and explains some ways for considering these claims to be true. It analyzes whether abortion ... More

Abortion Revisited  

Don Marquis

Print publication date:
Feb 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The three major classical accounts of the morality of abortion are all subject to at least one major problem. Can we do better? This article aims to discuss three accounts that purport to ... More

Absolute Knowledge and the Ethical Conclusion of the Phenomenology  

Dean Moyar

Print publication date:
Aug 2017
Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Hegel wrote in The Science of Logic that the deduction of the concept of science was accomplished at the end of the Phenomenology of Spirit in ‘Absolute Knowledge.’ This chapter links the ... More

Absolutism  

Mark Goldie

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
Absolutism is a nineteenth-century term designed precisely to address the mismatch between doctrine and power. The intellectual resources of absolutism were far older than the Renaissance ... More

Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (d. 925), The Spiritual Medicine  

Peter Adamson

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter offers an overview and analysis of an important ethical work by the early thinker Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyāʾ al-Rāzī (251/865–313/925). In keeping with his main ... More

Access to Basic Reproductive Rights: Global Challenges  

Sheelagh McGuinness and Heather Widdows

Print publication date:
Feb 2017
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
If women are to have true equality with men, they must be able to control the number of children they have and the time of childbirth. Access to family planning services, particularly safe ... More

Acquiring Aristotelian Virtue  

Nafsika Athanassoulis

Print publication date:
Feb 2018
Online publication date:
Dec 2017
This chapter examines the role of the virtuous agent in the acquisition of virtue. It rejects the view of the virtuous agent as a direct model for imitation and instead focuses on recent ... More

Action  

Alfred R. Mele

Print publication date:
Nov 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
What are actions? And how are actions to be explained? These two central questions of the philosophy of action call, respectively, for a theory of the nature of action and a theory of the ... More

Action and selfhood: a narrative interpretation  

László Tengelyi

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter enters into a debate with the analytic theory of action, especially the version developed by Donald Davidson, who makes it clear that the upsurge of a desire to perform a ... More

Action and The Will  

John Hyman

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
In Philosophical Investigations, Ludwig Wittgenstein talks about action and the will. The main ideas we need to be acquainted with in order to understand Wittgenstein's remarks on this ... More

Action-Based Accounts of Perception  

Pierre Jacob

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
There are two main motivations for action-based approaches to perception: the parsimonious assumption that action and perception belong to a single overlapping functional system and the ... More

The Actual World  

Donald Rutherford

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
This chapter discusses Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s theory of the actual world as the best of all possible worlds. The chapter opens with Leibniz’s response to the two most basic questions ... More

Adam Smith  

James R. Otteson

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) is Adam Smith's major contribution to ethical thought. Although it underwent six revisions during his lifetime, its primary arguments did not change, ... More

Adam Smith’s Libertarian Paternalism  

James R. Otteson

Print publication date:
Apr 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein argue for “libertarian paternalism,” defined as the strategy to devise policy that will “maintain or increase freedom of choice” and at the same time ... More

Addressing Wicked Problems through Transdisciplinary Research  

Christian Pohl, Bernhard Truffer, and Gertrude Hirsch-Hadorn

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Mar 2017
In a number of European countries a particular understanding of transdisciplinarity has evolved over the last decades, initiated by research on environmental problems. The focus of this ... More

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