You are looking at  1-20 of 361 articles  for:

  • European History x
Clear All

View:

‘A Low Dishonest Decade’?: War and Peace in the 1930s  

Anthony Adamthwaite

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This analysis of the origins of the Second World War in Europe challenges several key ideas of the historiography: the ‘thirty years war’ thesis, the notion of a European civil war, and ... More

After the Fear was Over? What Came After Dictatorships in Spain, Greece, and Portugal  

Helen Graham and Alejandro Quiroga

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
What Spain, Greece, and Portugal have in common in the twentieth century is the manner in which their internal processes of change – rural to urban, agrarian to industrial – were ... More

The Agrarian East  

Edgar Melton

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter deals with the vast territories east of the Elbe river, including Poland–Lithuania, the Czech lands, Brandenburg–Prussia, and Russia. There are two primary and interlocking ... More

The Agrarian West  

Tom Scott

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
The main developments in western European agrarian society and economy are surveyed at the outset in a regional analysis which stresses the degree of variety within quite small areas and ... More

‘America’ and Europe, 1914–1945  

D. W. Ellwood

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
The First World War cost Europe the leadership of the world. But the United States of Woodrow Wilson was not ready to take its place. The 1920s brought Europe to a crossroads where mass ... More

An “Epistolary Reformation”: The Role and Significance of Letters in the First Century of the Protestant Reformation  

Mark Greengrass

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Letter exchange occupies a significant and growing role in the activities of the Protestant Reformers. This chapter offers explanations for its growing significance in the evolution of the ... More

Anarchist Terrorism in Fin-de-Siècle France and its Borderlands  

Vivien Bouhey

Online publication date:
Feb 2014
In contrast to traditional historiography, which insists on the absence of organization within the anarchist movement and on the individual character of propaganda by the deed, this ... More

The Armies  

Andrew Hopper 

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This chapter suggests ways in which the military history of the civil war might be developed and widened to win over new audiences. It examines the social profile and composition of armies ... More

Art and Architecture  

T. K. Rabb

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter traces the revolution in style and taste that swept over the visual arts as a result of the movement we call the Renaissance. Not only was there a transformation in subject ... More

The Art and Architecture of War, Revolution, and Restoration  

Timothy Wilks

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jul 2014
This chapter considers the ideological and material struggle over art and architecture from the outbreak of the civil war to the Restoration. Loss of patrons and the removal of collections ... More

Asian Connections and Chinese Comparisons: The Unconquered East  

R. Bin Wong

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2015
Many of early modern Europe’s connections to Asia were commercial in nature, in contrast to the colonial relations forged by Europeans in the Americas. This chapter considers the ways in ... More

Austria  

Corinna Peniston-Bird

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
In the twenty-year lifespan of the First Republic, there were three contenders for the label of fascist: the Austrian Nazi Party, the Heimwehr, and the Corporate State. In Austria, one is ... More

Authority and Popular Resistance  

Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Dec 2014
Divisions between Marxist and non-Marxist historians have fuelled debate of late medieval and early modern popular protest over the past fifty years. Yet, an underlying consensus has ... More

Axis Imperialism in the Second World War  

Shelley Baranowski

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Common characteristics and objectives united the Axis alliance, composed of Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and imperial Japan. All three were ‘latecomers’ to the great power rivalries of the ... More

Belgium  

Bruno De Wever

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
On the eve of the First World War, Belgium boasted a long tradition of stable civil democracy. Between the two wars, however, its government was challenged by fascist movements, which ... More

Belief and its Limits  

Mack P. Holt

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
‘Belief and its Limits’ outlines five major themes: (1) the transformation started by the Protestant and Catholic reformations of the sixteenth century that refashioned the way most people ... More

Belle Époque: Europe before 1914  

Alan Sked

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
Did Europe’s ‘age of catastrophe’ (1914–1945) represent a break with the past or did it amplify the tensions of the preceding era? Was it a ‘parenthesis’ or a ‘revelation’? Historians have ... More

Bishops, Education, and Discipline  

Sarah Hamilton

Print publication date:
Aug 2014
Online publication date:
May 2014
Church discipline and the ways in which it was implemented offers an important window on to the relations between churchmen and lay people. But historians need to understand what ... More

The Body in the Reformations  

Herman Roodenburg

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2016
This chapter explores the physiology of Protestant inner emotion. Drawing on recent studies on the practice of piety and on rhetoric and medicine, it briefly sets out the period’s ... More

The Bohemian Reformations  

Howard Louthan

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Jan 2016
The article examines religious changes in Bohemia and Moravia from the age of Emperor Charles IV (1346–1378) through the first half of the seventeenth century. It begins by considering the ... More

View: