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1936  

Tim Rees

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The year 1936 was a momentous one in the history of communism. This was a time of acute uncertainty and fear, during which the Soviet Union and international communist movement faced ... More

‘A Low Dishonest Decade’?: War and Peace in the 1930s  

Anthony Adamthwaite

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This analysis of the origins of the Second World War in Europe challenges several key ideas of the historiography: the ‘thirty years war’ thesis, the notion of a European civil war, and ... More

The Afghan Interlude and the Zand and Afshar Dynasties (1722–95)  

Kamran Scot Aghaie

Print publication date:
Feb 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The intermediate period marking the transition from the Safavid to the Qajar dynasty was punctuated by widespread turmoil and varied bids to power. This interlude was strongly dominated by ... More

‘America’ and Europe, 1914–1945  

D. W. Ellwood

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
The First World War cost Europe the leadership of the world. But the United States of Woodrow Wilson was not ready to take its place. The 1920s brought Europe to a crossroads where mass ... More

The Atlantic Revolutions in the German Lands, 1776–1849  

Jonathan Sperber

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The Atlantic Revolutions in the German lands is the essence of this article. A discussion of the Atlantic revolutions in the German lands begins here with a consideration of the ... More

Authoritarian State, Dynamic Society, Failed Imperialist Power, 1878–1914  

Helmut Walser Smith

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on statehood, society, and the failed imperialist powers that continued to rampage Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. A social history of ... More

Averting Armageddon: The Communist Peace Movement, 1948–1956  

Geoffrey Roberts

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The post-war communist peace movement was a powerful instrument of Soviet foreign policy during the early Cold War. By the early 1950s the movement had eclipsed the Cominform as the ... More

Axis Imperialism in the Second World War  

Shelley Baranowski

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Common characteristics and objectives united the Axis alliance, composed of Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and imperial Japan. All three were ‘latecomers’ to the great power rivalries of the ... More

Belle Époque: Europe before 1914  

Alan Sked

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
Did Europe’s ‘age of catastrophe’ (1914–1945) represent a break with the past or did it amplify the tensions of the preceding era? Was it a ‘parenthesis’ or a ‘revelation’? Historians have ... More

Bolshevism Debated, 1921–1932  

Anne E. Gorsuch

Online publication date:
Jan 2015
Focusing on the transnational flow and exchange of ideas, rather than on divisions and borders, this chapter emphasizes the ways in which early debates about ‘Sovietness’ related to ... More

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