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African Traditional Religion and Violence  

Nathalie Wlodarczyk

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter analyzes a wide range of African customs and legends. It demonstrates that African traditional religion offers notions of a thriving spirit world which provides “sacred ... More

Al-Jama‘a Al-Islamiya and the Al-Jihad Group in Egypt  

Nael Shama

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article examines the development and ideology of Egypt’s largest militant groups, al-Jama`a al-Islamiya (al-Jama`a) and the Islamic Jihad Group (al-Jihad). It argues that modern ... More

Al-Qaida and Its Affiliates  

Jason Burke

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article examines the history, nature, and meaning of the “al-Qaida.” Debates have raged within the law enforcement and intelligence communities between those who favor a conception of ... More

The Allies  

Shlomo Aronson

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The Big Three Allies — Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union — ultimately brought vast military power to bear against the Third Reich, thus obtaining its unconditional ... More

Ancient Jewish and Early Christian Millennialism  

James D. Tabor

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article focuses on ancient Jewish and early Christian millennialism, which are found to be intrinsically inconsistent—there are no specific pointers towards marking the end of time; ... More

Ancient Mississippian Trophy-Taking  

David H. Dye

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Appropriating and manipulating human body parts was an important component of the belief system throughout much of the world. In eastern North America, Mississippian trophy-taking behavior ... More

Ancient Near Eastern Millennialism  

Robert Gnuse

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
Although there existed no real millennial text prior to late Jewish and early Christian texts, there exists an overabundance of resources that heavily draw on millennial texts. This ... More

Annihilationism  

Clark H. Pinnock

Print publication date:
Dec 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
In Christian theology, annihilationism designates the views of those who hold that the finally impenitent wicked will cease to exist after (or soon after) the last judgment. Annihilation ... More

Anti-Semitism Research  

Wolfgang Benz

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Anti-Semitism refers to all anti-Jewish statements, tendencies, resentments, attitudes, and actions, regardless of whether they are religiously, racially, socially, or otherwise motivated. ... More

Antisemitism  

Richard S. Levy

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article addresses the phenomenon of organized antisemitism in the sixty years preceding the “Final Solution,” primarily in Germany but with comparisons to contemporaneous developments ... More

Apocalyptic Religion and Violence  

Jamel Velji

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter offers a working definition of the apocalyptic, followed by some of the apocalyptic's most important constituent components. Then, it concentrates on associations between ... More

Armageddon in Christian, Sunni, and Shia Traditions  

Michael A. Sells

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter, which looks at the actual or alleged cases of apocalypticism within contemporary Iranian Shi'ite, Saudi Sunni, and American Christian circles, evaluates the issue of ... More

Art  

Dora Apel

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Focusing on works by artists such as Rico Lebrun (1900–1964), George Segal (1924–2000), or Jerome Witkin (b. 1939), art critics and art historians have sometimes criticized too realistic ... More

Assault Sorcery  

Robin M. Wright

This article is an in-depth study of the cosmology and practices of assault sorcerers. While it concentrates mostly on indigenous Amazonian societies, comparisons are drawn from other ... More

Avertive Apocalypticism  

Daniel Wojcik

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
The concept of avertive apocalypticism describes a wide range of beliefs that predict imminent worldly destruction and maintains that apocalypse may be averted or forestalled if believers ... More

Buddhist Traditions and Violence  

Michael Jerryson

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter discusses the history of Buddhist traditions and violence, concentrating on the scriptural justifications, symbols, and actual manifestations of violence. It covers Theravada ... More

Camps  

Karin Orth

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article focuses on the evolution of the Nazi concentration camp system. It discusses how this system evolved from a relatively small network of installations dedicated to punishing ... More

Catastrophic Millennialism  

Eugene V. Gallagher

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
Catastrophic millennialism emanates from a deep pessimism towards society, history, and general humanity. This article develops an analysis of the basic descriptive vocabulary of ... More

Catholics  

Kevin P. Spicer

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Catholic and Protestant churches were on-lookers and sometimes worse, as their responses to persecution included forms of inaction that spilled over into complicity. Beginning with an ... More

Children  

Nicholas Stargardt

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article explores how historians, at least since the late 1980s, have subjected the experience of children to more searching analysis, without making their fate any less shocking. ... More

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