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Abraham and Authenticity  

Reuven Firestone

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
The Abrahamic religions recognize Abraham as the first to arrive at the truth of monotheism and live out the ideal relationship with God. He is the archetype of the stalwart religious ... More

Ancient Near Eastern Millennialism  

Robert Gnuse

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
Although there existed no real millennial text prior to late Jewish and early Christian texts, there exists an overabundance of resources that heavily draw on millennial texts. This ... More

Ancient Near Eastern Studies: Egypt  

Kenneth Kitchen

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article looks at the impact of ancient Near Eastern studies on biblical scholarship. Before 1800, no accurate first-hand knowledge of Egypt's ancient remains was available to compare ... More

Ancient Near Eastern Studies: Mesopotamia  

W. G. Lambert

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the impact of ancient Near Eastern studies on biblical scholarship, focusing on written remains of all kinds. Ancient Mesopotamia has yielded tens of thousands of ... More

Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament  

Gerard J. Norton

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article first gives a schematic outline of the history of the Hebrew text in four stages. It then presents the elements that readers will meet in modern editions of that text. These ... More

Apocalyptic Eschatology in the Ancient World  

John J. Collins

Print publication date:
Dec 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The category of “apocalyptic literature” was invented by the German New Testament scholar Friedrich Lücke in 1832 in the context of an introduction to the Book of Revelation. Lücke ... More

Apocalypticism and Messianism  

Michael A. Knibb

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The beliefs of the movement that lies behind the scrolls were influenced by the eschatological ideas of the early Enochic writings and by the Book of Daniel, and although the movement does ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses archaeology's impact on biblical scholarship, especially over the last two centuries. It describes the Christian pilgrims, explorers, travellers, map makers, and ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the contributions of archaeology to biblical scholarship. Biblical scholarship needs the archaeologist as it needs the anthropologist, the epigraphist, the ... More

Assessing the Text‐Critical Theories of the Hebrew Bible after Qumran  

Ronald S. Hendel

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The biblical texts from Qumran are the oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, dating from the mid-third century BCE through the first century CE. Prior to the discovery of the Qumran ... More

Augustine and Pelagius on the Epistle to the Romans  

Mark Edwards

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
Perhaps no scriptural passage has divided the church so bitterly, or so often, as the ninth article of the Epistle to the Romans. Predestinarian readings take two forms, one of which ... More

Authoritative Scriptures and the Dead Sea Scrolls  

Timothy H. Lim

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The approach advocated in this article is the understanding of canon as authoritative literature that is binding for the Qumran community. The distinctive features of this approach are: ... More

The Classical Sources on the Essenes and the Scrolls Communities  

Joan E. Taylor

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The nature of groups named in classical sources as ‘Essenes’ was considered in scholarship of Second Temple Judaism long before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, but discussion of the ... More

Constructing Ancient Judaism from the Scrolls  

Martin Goodman

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Most of the Dead Sea Scrolls can be classified as religious documents of one kind or another, and all the studies since 1947 that have been devoted to their significance can be ... More

The Construction of Gender in the New Testament  

Colleen M. Conway

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
This chapter begins with a brief overview of the theorists who have shaped gender analytical work on the New Testament, especially the application of gender theory in classical studies. It ... More

The Continuity of Biblical Interpretation in the Qumran Scrolls and Rabbinic Literature  

Bilhah Nitzan

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Considering Qumranic hermeneutical systems with regard to form, this article distinguishes between ‘internal interpretation’ integrated within rewritten biblical books, such as the Temple ... More

The Contribution of the Qumran Scrolls to the Study of Ancient Jewish Liturgy  

Daniel K. Falk

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Prayer as a service to God by the people is one of the most far reaching of religious practices, forming a central part of the religious practice of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; yet ... More

Critical Issues in the Investigation of the Scrolls and the New Testament  

Jörg Frey

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
From the very earliest period after the first discoveries, the Qumran scrolls have been of major interest to New Testament (NT) scholars, and, in retrospect, the impact of the scrolls has ... More

Early Christian Apocryphal Literature  

Stephen J. Shoemaker

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The apocryphal literature of early Christianity consists primarily of narrative traditions about the life and teaching of Jesus, his family, and his apostles, as well as letters, ... More

The East (1): Greece and Asia Minor  

Raymond Van Dam

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The apostle Paul was primarily responsible for the initial introduction of Christianity in western, central, and southern Asia Minor and in the Greek peninsula. During the mid-first ... More

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