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1936  

Tim Rees

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The year 1936 was a momentous one in the history of communism. This was a time of acute uncertainty and fear, during which the Soviet Union and international communist movement faced ... More

‘A Low Dishonest Decade’?: War and Peace in the 1930s  

Anthony Adamthwaite

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This analysis of the origins of the Second World War in Europe challenges several key ideas of the historiography: the ‘thirty years war’ thesis, the notion of a European civil war, and ... More

The Afghan Interlude and the Zand and Afshar Dynasties (1722–95)  

Kamran Scot Aghaie

Print publication date:
Feb 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The intermediate period marking the transition from the Safavid to the Qajar dynasty was punctuated by widespread turmoil and varied bids to power. This interlude was strongly dominated by ... More

‘America’ and Europe, 1914–1945  

D. W. Ellwood

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
The First World War cost Europe the leadership of the world. But the United States of Woodrow Wilson was not ready to take its place. The 1920s brought Europe to a crossroads where mass ... More

The Atlantic Revolutions in the German Lands, 1776–1849  

Jonathan Sperber

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The Atlantic Revolutions in the German lands is the essence of this article. A discussion of the Atlantic revolutions in the German lands begins here with a consideration of the ... More

Authoritarian State, Dynamic Society, Failed Imperialist Power, 1878–1914  

Helmut Walser Smith

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on statehood, society, and the failed imperialist powers that continued to rampage Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. A social history of ... More

Averting Armageddon: The Communist Peace Movement, 1948–1956  

Geoffrey Roberts

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The post-war communist peace movement was a powerful instrument of Soviet foreign policy during the early Cold War. By the early 1950s the movement had eclipsed the Cominform as the ... More

Axis Imperialism in the Second World War  

Shelley Baranowski

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Common characteristics and objectives united the Axis alliance, composed of Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and imperial Japan. All three were ‘latecomers’ to the great power rivalries of the ... More

Belle Époque: Europe before 1914  

Alan Sked

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
Did Europe’s ‘age of catastrophe’ (1914–1945) represent a break with the past or did it amplify the tensions of the preceding era? Was it a ‘parenthesis’ or a ‘revelation’? Historians have ... More

Bolshevism Debated, 1921–1932  

Anne E. Gorsuch

Online publication date:
Jan 2015
Focusing on the transnational flow and exchange of ideas, rather than on divisions and borders, this chapter emphasizes the ways in which early debates about ‘Sovietness’ related to ... More

Bolshevism enforced, 1917–1921  

Erik Landis

Online publication date:
Dec 2013
How could the Bolsheviks exert control over Russia between October 1917 and 1921 when the Provisional Government had failed to do so after the February Revolution? This chapter reassesses ... More

Business and Industry  

Philip Ollerenshaw

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter examines the evolution of business and industry in Ireland since the eighteenth century. Manufacturing industry, together with financial services, is discussed alongside some ... More

Colonized and Colonizers: Ireland in the British Empire  

Stephen Howe

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter attempts a broad historical and historiographical survey of relations between Irish history and that of the British Empire—both of Ireland as subject to English, then British ... More

Communism: Fascism's ‘Other’?  

Roger D. Markwick

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Many hold the view not only that Soviet communism and Italian fascism were close ‘totalitarian’ cousins, if not twins like Stalinism and Nazism, but also that the threat of communism begat ... More

Communism and Economic Modernization  

Mark Harrison

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
May 2013
This article examines the range of national experiences of communist rule in terms of the aspiration to ‘overtake and outstrip the advanced countries economically’. It reviews the causal ... More

Comparisons and Definitions  

Robert O. Paxton

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Why did fascism succeed in some parts of Europe and not in others? This question places the topic squarely in the domain of comparative history. The development of fascism in Europe after ... More

Confederation and Union, 1641–60  

Jane Ohlmeyer

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The 1640s and 1650s were defining decades in Irish history. The 1641 rebellion played a crucial role in shaping the triple Stuart monarchy during the seventeenth century and triggered a ... More

Culture and Intellectuals  

Guido Bonsaver

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The relationship between Italy's intellectuals and fascism is a most controversial issue, which has generated waves of differing views and many forms of polemic. Once the dictatorship and ... More

Culture in the Shadow of Trauma?  

Lutz Koepnick

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
In the ruins of World War II, culture was meant to mend the spiritual wounds and traumatic losses of everyday life by providing meanings and orientations unscathed by the functionalization ... More

De Valera’s Ireland, 1932–58  

Diarmaid Ferriter

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Following defeat in the civil war of 1922–23, Irish republicans formed a new political party, Fianna Fáil, in 1926. By 1932, Fianna Fáil, under the leadership of Eamon de Valera, achieved ... More

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