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1919  

Jean-François Fayet

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
May 2013
Two years after the revolution in Russia, the social revolution was once again fermenting on the ruins of the empires defeated in the war. The First World War was turning into a civil war ... More

1936  

Tim Rees

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The year 1936 was a momentous one in the history of communism. This was a time of acute uncertainty and fear, during which the Soviet Union and international communist movement faced ... More

1956  

Sergey Radchenko

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
May 2013
This article explores the impact of de-Stalinization on the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China. Writers, artists, and intellectuals welcomed the curtailment of repression—the so- ... More

1968  

Maud Anne Bracke

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Around 1968 communism expanded as a global movement, especially in the developing world, while hitting a crisis of legitimation in Europe. In the Western world the late 1960s saw young ... More

1989  

Matthias Middell

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The essay argues that the story of 1989 can be told either as a narrow or a wide story. The narrow story focuses on the end of communism, the unification of Germany, and the subsequent ... More

‘A Low Dishonest Decade’?: War and Peace in the 1930s  

Anthony Adamthwaite

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This analysis of the origins of the Second World War in Europe challenges several key ideas of the historiography: the ‘thirty years war’ thesis, the notion of a European civil war, and ... More

Abolition and Antislavery  

John Stauffer

Print publication date:
Jul 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the historiography of abolition and antislavery. Abolitionism is an idea, articulated through language that emerged in the eighteenth century and propelled people ... More

Absolute Monarchy  

Peter R. Campbell

Print publication date:
Nov 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article argues that in spite of absolute monarchy's success in seemingly rising above society it developed claims and practices that ran counter to long-term representative tendencies ... More

The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 bce)  

A. Shapur Shahbazi

Print publication date:
Feb 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Reinforced Assyrian invasions from the mid-eighth century prompted Iranian tribes to consolidate at local states. Thus, while the Medes strain consolidated around King Deioces, Persians ... More

Achieving the Promise of Oral History in a Digital Age  

Doug Boyd

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The phrase “digital revolution” is frequently used in both popular and academic discourse to describe the multiple contexts of our increasingly electronically enriched and ... More

The Acllacona and Mitmacona: diet, ethnicity, and status  

Bethany Turner-Livermore and Barbara R. Hewitt

Print publication date:
Jun 2018
Online publication date:
Apr 2018
This chapter discusses research by the authors among Inca populations from two sites in Peru. Machu Picchu was a royal Inca estate, close to the imperial capital of Cuzco and inhabited by ... More

Acting like Harmodius and Aristogeiton: Tyrannicide in Ancient Greek Political Culture  

David A. Teegarden

Online publication date:
Feb 2014
This chapter provides an analytical framework for interpreting the history of tyrannicide in ancient Greece. It first explores the Athenians’ idealization of Harmodius and Aristogeiton—two ... More

Advanced Agriculture  

Kenneth Pomeranz

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
‘Advanced’ agriculture must be advanced relative to something and by some criteria. There is no consensus on what those criteria are, though certainly high yields per acre, and perhaps per ... More

The Afghan Interlude and the Zand and Afshar Dynasties (1722–95)  

Kamran Scot Aghaie

Print publication date:
Feb 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The intermediate period marking the transition from the Safavid to the Qajar dynasty was punctuated by widespread turmoil and varied bids to power. This interlude was strongly dominated by ... More

Africa  

Elizabeth Schmidt

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the impact of the Cold War on Africa. It explains that while Africa is the least-known Cold War battleground, the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and Cuba ... More

Africa  

David B. Mattingly and Kevin MacDonald

Print publication date:
Feb 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This article examines early urban societies in Africa. It emphasizes three key issues: the strikingly wide geographical range and structural variety of urban forms; the apparent dichotomy ... More

Africa and The Global Lives of Things  

Jeremy Prestholdt

Print publication date:
Mar 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Inquiries into commodification, social distinction, and fashion have offered fresh perspectives on social relations and cultural formations in Africa. Imported consumer goods were both ... More

Africa in the Atlantic World, C.1760 – C. 1840  

Robin Law

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The transatlantic slave trade peaked in the third quarter of the eighteenth century, when more than 80,000 slaves annually were being shipped from Africa for the Americas. This ... More

Africa in World History: The Long, Long View  

Christopher Ehret

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article describes the origins of Africa; the ‘First Great Transition’ of human history from foraging to food production; the era of agricultural elaboration; the ‘Second Great ... More

Africa, Slavery, and the Slave Trade, Mid-Seventeenth to Mid-Eighteenth Centuries  

David Eltis

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Which of the major components of the Atlantic world — the Americas, Africa, and Europe — was most immediately affected by the integration of the Old and New Worlds that Columbian contact ... More

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