Matthew E. Reynolds
5150: On Unethical Privacy is an autobiographical piece where Matthew Reynolds recounts the situation wherein he was involuntarily committed shortly before his 21st birthday. He describes the situation that led to his psychotic break, and the problems his parents had, who he is very close to and have had a large place in his treatment. He was incapable of informed consent and, after being tranquilized, due to his manic depression, he slept for 36 hours wherein neither his parents, physician, psychiatrist, or anybody else were contacted. Finally, his main moral dilemma is discussed. He highlights just what went wrong ethically based on his own memory of events, which he learned of during and after his involuntary committal. His main argument is: “what use is a psychotic patient’s undeniable rights to privacy, if he is incapable of helping himself?” He notes how these systems backfired throughout.
Paige H. Fisher, Susan Nolan, and Magdalena Galazyn
This chapter offers recommendations, evidence-based when possible, on teaching abnormal psychology in an effective and engaging manner. In the first section, we address issues related to the content of an Abnormal Psychology course. We outline the traditional content areas, as well as current topics that are often underemphasized, such as controversies with diagnosis, and international and cross-cultural issues. In the second section, we provide an overview of pedagogical tools that are particularly relevant for an abnormal psychology course, including the use of case material, role-play, and simulation; we provide suggestions on how to use these tools to create a stimulating and interactive classroom. In the third section, we outline ethical issues that can emerge when teaching abnormal psychology, such as informed consent and classroom management of sensitive topics, and offer suggestions for creating an ethical classroom environment.
Brian F. O'Donnell, Dean F. Salisbury, Margaret A. Niznikiewicz, Colleen A. Brenner, and Jenifer L. Vohs
Schizophrenia is a disabling psychotic illness that has been associated with alterations in synaptic connectivity and neurotransmission. Since event-related potential (ERP) components are typically generated by the summation of postsynaptic potentials produced by neural populations, these measures are well suited to assess such pathophysiological alterations. This chapter reviews the utility of ERP components in the investigation of the cognitive and neural mechanisms affected by schizophrenia. It focuses on five components: mismatch negativity (MMN), P50 measures of sensory gating, N100 and P300 in the oddball discrimination paradigms, and the N400 component elicited during language processing. These components test key cognitive systems affected by schizophrenia: sensory memory (MMN), sensory processing and inhibition (P50, N1), selective attention and working memory (P300), and semantic processing (N400). These components are discussed with respect to the following issues: (1) cognitive and neural systems indexed by the component, (2) abnormalities in schizophrenia, (3) sensitivity and specificity to schizophrenia, (4) clinical correlates, and (5) relationship to genetic variation. ERP components are well validated biomarkers for schizophrenia which have significant promise in the characterization of genomic and epigenomic factors, pharmacological response in humans and animal models, and the developmental and cognitive expression of the illness.
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or categorize musical pitches accurately without an external reference. Although AP is generally thought to be rare, music psychology research in the past few decades has debated on every aspect of the phenomenon. This chapter will review the theories, methods, and findings on AP from the cognitive psychology and neuroscience literature, with the goal of elucidating some of the following controversies on AP: its identification and prevalence, its genetic and environmental origins, its psychological and neural underpinnings, and the degree to which it may be informative as a scientific model of brain function.
Abuse of people with disabilities is a substantial problem because of the particular physical, emotional, and sexual vulnerabilities that people with disabilities have, in addition to being vulnerable to the abuse associated with their disabilities. The problem of abuse for the disabled population is complicated by a lack of knowledge in health-care professionals, lack of awareness in people with disabilities themselves, and limited resources for, and barriers to, intervention. In this chapter I will examine the nature of the problem, the types of abuse related to disability, and the vulnerability factors that increase risk. We will look at how to assess for abuse in people with disabilities, the consequences often faced in reporting abuse, and the best practices for assessment. I will also review the limited research on different cognitive, behavioral, or psycho-educational intervention approaches. Given the challenges to successfully evaluating and addressing this problem, mental health providers must have a thorough understanding of this issue.
Edward S. Shapiro, Jaime Benson, Nathan Clemens, and Karen L. Gischlar
The assessment of academic skills is an essential and critical component of the life of all schools. Like the assessment of other areas of functioning, assessment of academic skills needs to include multiple methods, multiple modalities, and multiple perspectives to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the problem. The process of assessment needs to cut across the range of direct and indirect approaches in order to capture a complete viewpoint of the academic skill problems that the student is experiencing. Included in the chapter are brief reviews of direct assessment methods built on observation, curriculum-based assessment, normative or criterion-referenced standardized tests, permanent product or portfolio review, as well as indirect methods built upon rating scales and interviews with teachers and students.
Academic Interventions: What School Psychologists Need to Know for Their Assessment and Problem Solving Consultation Roles
Virginia W. Berninger, Michel Fayol, and Nicole Alston–Abel
This chapter provides an overview of critical concepts about academic interventions that school psychologists can apply in their assessment (prevention and diagnosis) and problem solving consultation roles. Topics covered include (a) general principles from research on reading, writing, math, and science instruction and learning; (b) home–school relationships; and (c) issues of diversity, motivation, and interpersonal relationships. School psychologists are encouraged to read widely and deeply the research literature on academic instruction and learning, to which many disciplines have contributed. School psychologists are also encouraged to practice and master the artful transformation of that research knowledge to the individual case at hand within a specific social context, including the family, classroom, school, community, and culture.
Maureen A. McCarthy, Dana S. Dunn, Jane S. Halonen, and Suzanne C. Baker
The authors provide a rationale for academic program reviews (APRs), highlighting their role in improving teaching, learning, and program quality in psychology departments. Following a brief history of accreditation in higher education, they introduce the purpose and scope of quality benchmarking in psychology program. Specific guidelines for organizing an APR for a psychology department include writing and organizing a self-study document, selecting an external reviewer(s) to lead the program evaluation, and planning for and scheduling activities for a reviewer’s visit. The essay concludes by considering the future of the APR in psychology education, especially at the undergraduate level.
María Oliva Márquez-González, Andrés Losada, and Rosa Romero-Moreno
Dementia caregiving is associated with negative physical and psychological health consequences. Multicomponent, behavioural, and psychotherapeutic interventions for reducing caregivers’ distress, particularly the cognitive-behavioural ones, present the greatest effect sizes, but nevertheless these effects are only moderate. The third wave of behavioural therapies and, specifically acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), offers interesting therapeutic tools aimed at fostering the acceptance of aversive internal experiences and the commitment to personal values. Given the chronic nature of the caregiving situation and the unchangeability of many of its elements (e.g. feeling sadness or grief), ACT represents a promising and potentially helpful therapeutic approach to help dementia caregivers to decrease their emotional distress. Very few studies have so far analysed the efficacy of ACT or some of its components (e.g. mindfulness) in this population, but these provide some preliminary support for the utility of this approach in improving caregivers’ psychological well-being. Assuming the need for further research in order to consider ACT as an empirically validated therapy for dementia caregivers, in this chapter we analyse, in the context of caregiving, the psychological processes highlighted in the ACT model of psychopathology, such as experiential avoidance, describing examples of them in cases of caregivers we have assisted in our clinical work, and outlining ACT-based therapeutic strategies that we have found useful on a clinical basis for modifying them.
Robert Zettle and Suzanne Gird
Acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions are part of the third generation of cognitive–behavioral therapies (Hayes, 2004). Among these approaches, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) enjoy the greatest empirical support in the treatment and prevention of depression. Despite some similarities, ACT and MBCT differ on philosophical, methodological, and strategic dimensions. Outcome literature is more extensive for MBCT; empirical support for putative therapeutic processes specific to each appears to be stronger for ACT. Increasingly both approaches have been extended into clinical areas previously occupied by the other, with ACT being used for prevention of depression and MBCT for treatment of acute depressive symptoms. These developments have made it possible to indirectly compare their therapeutic impact and suggest shared mechanisms of action. Randomized clinical trials in which ACT and MBCT are directly evaluated on common outcome and process variables are recommended to more fully explicate these comparisons.