James D. Abbey and V. Daniel R. Guide, Jr.
This article investigates closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) as a process flow. It then presents the evolution of CLSCs as a fundamental piece of the broader business and the natural environment (B&NE) related framework of reduce, reuse, and recycle. It addresses how reverse supply chains differ from forward chains, what activities drive a reverse supply chain, and how a CLSC coordinates the forward and reverse supply chains. Product acquisition management (PrAM) focuses on obtaining the used products from the user. The three core facets of PrAM systems are presented. The reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) hierarchy can be used to gain a more holistic view of CLSCs. Finding an appropriate contract or other means to align the incentives can prove crucial for acquiring the returned products. The future of CLSC will require a more holistic view of CLSCs across multiple business disciplines.
Koen van Bommel and André Spicer
This chapter examines the role of Critical Management Studies (CMS) in the exploration of paradoxes in organizations. CMS focuses on the study of paradoxes in organizational life and aims to address these paradoxes in order to reveal and question structures of oppression and contribute to a progressive force for emancipatory change. The paradoxical aspects of CMS are discussed and various paradoxes addressed by its scholars are explained. These paradoxes are examined from diverse theoretical traditions such as feminism, queer theory, colonialism, and the work of Marx, Weber, and Foucault. Notwithstanding this theoretical pluralism, CMS’ aim is to uncover the often unseen dynamics that shape almost all core organizational processes. The value of considering paradoxes from a CMS perspective is also discussed. Finally, suggestions about how to locate and examine hidden paradoxes are offered and a research agenda around CMS and paradox is presented.
Rodney Turner, Jeff Pinto, and Christophe Bredillet
This article seeks to address the question of the current state of project management research through an analysis of the domain's advance over time, as evidenced in the pages of its principal academic research outlets. While there are many ways in which theoreticians and researchers have sought to examine the evolving nature of the project management research field, the attempt here involves a more forensic approach, based on a critical review of some of the published literature. Over the past twenty years there has been a substantial improvement in the quality and rigor of project management research, as evidenced by the standard of papers being published in three leading academic research journals that focus on project management research. This article represents the collective thoughts and reflections of the three journals' editors at the time of writing on the evolution of the project management research field.
Neil M. Coe
This article explores the potential for dialogue between the literature on the creative industries—with its emphasis on local clustering and policies—and that which explores the development and dynamics of global production networks (GPN). The central argument is that there is much to be gained by adopting a GPN approach to explore the creative industries. The article has two main sections. First, it explains what the GPN framework has to offer in terms of understanding the creative industries. More specifically, it suggests that researchers need be attuned to the various multi-scalar and cross-activity connections that constitute the creative sectors. Second, the article uses the example of the film and television industries. The globalization of production, marketing and finance in these specific sectors clearly show the importance of situating local clusters of activity within wider networks. The policy implication of the analysis is that forging extra-local connections may be just as important as promoting local networking.
Robert D. Klassen and Stephan Vachon
Any definition of greener supply chain management must capture design; material selection, extraction, and sourcing; manufacturing; logistics and delivery; and end-of-life management. Two major extensions of the operations system include from operations at a single firm to operations across the supply chain, and from the one-way supply chain to the closed loop. Both influence and accountability affect how a firm might position itself within the supply chain on particular environmental issues, and the means available to manage performance. The potential competitive advantage generated by environmental collaboration is addressed. Tightening environmental legislation generates opportunities to introduce new value-added services and products. Life cycle assessment encourages firms to look beyond first-tier suppliers to the entire supply chain. System-based measurement and stronger integration of the social bottom line in supply chains are areas that hold promise for both research and practice in the short to medium term.
This article outlines the key elements of organization and HRM associated with contemporary high-volume production, in particular the key arguments and characteristics of lean manufacturing. Lean manufacturing and the associated high-performance work system model has been influential in the development of management practices throughout manufacturing sectors and beyond. However, they are primarily premised on labor efficiencies and incremental improvement. The article reviews the evidence on the implementation and outcomes of lean adoption. The second main section reviews alternatives to ‘lean’. The requirement for innovation and higher value added noted above has meant that a greater emphasis on creating and managing knowledge than that associated with lean manufacturing has become central. One insightful, and increasingly influential, way of conceiving of this challenge has been developed from the concept of ‘communities of practice’, i.e. groups of largely autonomous and self-organizing experts.
Christoph Loch and Stylianos Kavadias
The realization is growing that projects fail not only because of incompetent execution, but also, and frequently, because of a muddled strategic context, inadequate scope, or unarticulated—and thus unresolved—tensions and/or trade-offs among the project stakeholders. This realization has a straightforward message: project managers could benefit a great deal from expanding their activity to account for strategy alignment and organizational enablers. This article proposes that this view, although a step forward, still decouples project management from strategy-making. It implies that the business people set the outcomes and charter, and project management executes. Yet, this view misses the fact that strategy is not made only “at the top” and then cascaded down. In a world of increasing uncertainty, volatility, and interdependence across forms, industries, and countries, strategy is emergent; it has to adjust to events as they occur.
Jennifer Whyte and Raymond Levitt
This article argues that emerging digital technologies are enabling new forms of project management in project-based industries. The 1960s project management approach originated in the mature project-based industries of petrochemicals, military, advanced manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, buildings, and infrastructure. This approach, which is termed “Project Management 1.0” (PM 1.0), evolved to manage small numbers of large, complex projects in business and regulatory environments that were relatively stable by today's standards. It involves detailed up-front planning, using multiple layers of hierarchical work breakdown structures. It then manages these projects by tracking and eliminating variance from plans. The approach is alive and well in some of those same industries, and has been greatly enhanced by widespread use of digital technologies for planning, visualization, communication, procurement, logistics, and other functions. However, there are important ways in which the use of information technology begins to challenge this traditional project management approach.
Stewart Clegg, Kjersti Bjørkeng, and Tyrone Pitsis
This article begins by considering the institution of contract and approaches to it. It follows this with an analysis of an institutional innovation, the development of alliancing as a specific form of contract premised on a far more normative mode of control than the disciplinary mechanisms of surveillance which have traditionally been seen as more typically associated with conventional contracts. A new way of managing projects is evolving, which is reported in this article. The article also considers some of its advantages as well as some of its disadvantages.
The close bond between the management of projects and innovation was well understood in the 1950s when pioneering organizations created new structures, techniques, and processes to manage complex and highly uncertain research and development projects in technologically advanced weapons and defence-related industries. Over subsequent decades, there have been some points of convergence when researchers investigated the nexus of innovation and project management, such as Japanese product development practices in the 1980s. But in the main, the literatures on project and innovation management followed distinct, largely self-contained trajectories of theoretical, professional, and practical development. In recent years, however, there has been a strong convergence and cross-fertilization of ideas between innovation and project management. A new wave of research is investigating the different ways in which organizations use projects to manage the uncertainties associated with innovation processes and outcomes.
Thomas E. Johnsen, Richard C. Lamming, and Christine M. Harland
This article discusses inter-organizational relationships (IORs) in the wider context of chains and networks of organizations. It distinguishes between IORs, chains, and networks and subsets of those, perceived through different disciplinary lenses. Different lenses lead researchers to operate at different units of analysis within relationships, chains, and networks. For example, a sociological focus gives rise to researchers observing social connections. An economic focus leads to observations of economic exchanges between organizations conceptualized as economic entities. A strategic management focus leads the researcher to observe strategic configurations and positions. These different units of analysis represent different types of relationship, chain, and network and require different methodologies, methods, and techniques to research them. In particular, this article uses an operations and supply lens to observe supply relationships, chains, and networks.
Martin Hoegl, Miriam Muethel, and Hans Georg Gemuenden
Geographically dispersed, or virtual, project teams are increasingly used to engage specialized knowledge at different locations. This is particularly true for complex and dynamic projects and process development. In such contexts, companies seek to leverage superior knowledge residing at different locations (e.g. technical knowledge, local market knowledge) through direct collaboration, partly relying on computer-mediated communication. Likewise, companies are staffing projects with individuals at different sites to capture favorable labor costs. This article starts with a more detailed discussion of the four characteristics of the work and task context of dispersed project teams, specifically highlighting the leadership challenges stemming from these characteristics. It then discusses how shared leadership in dispersed project teams drives their teamwork quality, arguing that shared leadership helps overcome the challenges of geographic dispersion, national diversity, electronic dependence, and task uncertainty.
Oliver Alexy and Linus Dahlander
This article provides an overview of the literature on the management of open innovation. Elaborating on what exactly ‘open’ innovation comprises, this article integrates efforts by scholars who have studied this topic from a variety of perspectives. In doing so this article highlights that despite the virtues of openness having been stressed by much of the literature in this field, many companies still struggle to be successful with their open innovation strategies. A big question therefore for both theory and practice is under which contingencies openness is beneficial, and the article reviews internal and external factors that shape the rewards companies can derive. This results in a number of theoretical and managerial implications and suggestions for avenues of future research.
Zoe Radnor and Nicola Bateman
This chapter aims to reflect on the past and present move of OM from manufacturing to service through analysis of key OM journals and recognition of practice before considering in more depth the future of OM in terms of the ‘fit’ for public services. It offers an analysis of ‘lean’ in public services. A philosophy and methodology much hailed as way to manage operations effectively. The review will present the prespective that uncritically applying manufacturing ideas to public service is flawed. It argues that adapting OM to the public service environment whilst, learning from existing thinking, should also recognise themselves as services, with the distinctive service operations management logic and managerial challenges that this implies. In conclusion, the chapter will state that managing operations across all sectors in the future should draw on a range of disciplines, theory and concepts.
This review examines the project based organization literature as applied to creative industries. The industries referenced in this review include those in the popular classifications such as DCMS (Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 1998), namely advertising, architecture, art and antiques, computer games, crafts, design, designer fashion, film and video, music, performing arts, publishing, software, TV and radio (Cunningham, 2002). The review opens with a definition of Project Based Organization and locates PBO within various literature definitions. Next the review examines three elements of all Project Based Organizations: 1. the project Roles and identities of project participants, 2. the Relationships amongst project participants (including both past, current and prospective relationships) from both an internal project team and external project network perspective, and 3. the Routines that provide either experimental variation or procedural continuity and efficiency within and across projects that arise within project based organizations. The review will seek to identify some recurring challenges or dilemmas regarding roles, relationships and routines within creative sector based Project Based organizations and suggest patterns of resolutions of those challenges or dilemmas from the extant PBO literature. The paper concludes with an examination of three contexts relevant to resolving these PBO challenges.
Graham M. Winch and Eunice Maytorena
This article aims to reconnect project risk management with its roots in psychology and economics and thereby generate a cognitive approach to project risk management. While there has been widespread application of the tools and techniques of project risk management, and good practice has been captured in a large number of different standards and texts, few signs of improvement are apparent in project performance. The article suggest that the inappropriate use of project risk management techniques may be part of the problem rather than part of the solution here, and that we need to rethink project risk management from first principles. Starting from a presumption that project risk management is the essence of project management more generally, the article offers a review of some of the key contributions from psychology and economics that have shaped our thinking before presenting a cognitive model of project risk managing.
The origins of “modern” marketing are connected to increase in real wages, the choices generated by disposable incomes, transport and communication systems, the building of national markets, and urbanization. If the economic and social opportunities were to be fulfilled, businesses needed to innovate products and systems, and they succeeded with the manufacturing and distribution of standardized goods. The assumption of the marketing orientation, which started with the wishes of consumers, was a response by many leading enterprises to the greater individual spending power of the consumer. In several important cases, it brought the increasing segmentation of formerly homogenous markets. Market research assisted the process of product development, and the use of psychological analysis challenged the simplicities of “narrow” economics.
Steven Rathgeb Smith
The basic argument of this article is that the emergent role of NGOs as providers of public services has created new and complicated public management dilemmas. In terms of structure, this article provides an overview and historical perspective on government contracting with NGOs and offers a conceptual framework to understand the relationship between government and NGOs in the contracting relationship. Next, it focuses on the management and policy challenges posed by contracting, then details the implications for citizenship of the greater reliance on NGOs for public service delivery. Finally, it discusses contracting in the context of current trends in public management and the implications of these trends on the users of public services and the citizenry more generally.
The emergence of Operations Management (OM) in the early 1960s is described, showing how it was based on the adoption of mathematical models from operational research during the Second World War. Subsequent major developments such as Materials Requirements Planning, Japanese manufacturing, manufacturing strategy, and supply chain management, and their effect on the OM discipline are outlined. These often attempted to reconcile the reductive analytical approach of early OM with the consideration of larger systems. The adoption of empirical research methods and theory from outside OM during the 1990s is examined, as well as the ever-present tension between practical relevance and academic rigour. Finally, the chapter reflects on ‘where the management is’ in operations management. It suggests that the managerial substance of OM is in exercising judgement on issues not susceptible to modelling, generating alternative courses of action, managing change, and judging how and when to use models, given the specific context of the operation.
This article first lists the general characteristics of major publich projects and programmes. These projects are deeply problematic, because they produce failure upon failure. Most of the time this impacts people mainly in terms of financial losses, which is bad enough for taxpayers and other investors who fund major projects. But worse, particular groups, who are often already disadvantaged, are sometimes forced to carry a disproportionate share of negative environmental and social impacts from projects that do not even deliver the promised benefits. This article uncovers the deeper causes of cost overruns and benefit shortfalls. In addition, possible solutions to the problems are described.