Many of the societal injustices historically perpetrated against persons with disabilities are well known: educational segregation, inaccessible public buildings and programs, and lack of employment opportunities. Less obvious and rarely acknowledged are issues related to the social integration of persons with disabilities and the resulting educational implications. Students with disabilities who are socially accepted and well assimilated into their school and are more likely to graduate and to secure employment. Indicators of social inequities are often subtle and overlooked, thus making teachers powerless to facilitate classroom interactions that contribute to the well-being and educational success of students with disabilities. The ability to embrace diversity in all its facets and to advance social justice requires that educators (1) understand disability culture and its place within the majority culture, (2) recognize stereotypic and stigmatizing views of persons with disability, and (3) create socially and musically inclusive environments for students with disabilities.
Kari K. Veblen
This article examines current research and practice in formal, nonformal, and informal learning for adult music students. In a formal setting, the teacher controls the materials, pacing, and interactions in a structured environment. Nonformal learning practices involve systematic and deliberate but less regulated pursuits that occur outside of educational structures. Informal practices comprise aspects of knowledge and skill acquisition that are largely experiential.
This article considers the influence of the National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook, Basic Concepts in Music Education (1958), on the actions of music teachers. The Yearbook strongly influenced emerging scholars working towards a doctorate in music education and searching for substantive ideas that would support their own contributions to their chosen vocation. Research-based efforts in music education have fostered impressive growth in further theory, but had little impact on school programs and practices. Several conditions in music education that support the separation of theory from practice are discussed.
Hermione Ruck Keene and Lucy Green
Music summer schools in the United Kingdom offer a holiday context for “serious leisure” for amateurs, and high-level tuition for aspiring professionals. The majority exist in distinct spaces for either the vocational or avocational musician; Dartington International Summer School is anomalous in that it is attended by amateur, aspiring professional and professional musicians. Theories of leisure as symbol, play, and the other, and Bahktin’s theory of the “carnivalesque” are used in this chapter as lenses to view participant experience. Mantie’s concept of the learner-participant dichotomy sheds light on the clashes and complementarity arising from the differing intentions of the participants. The chapter discusses how the leisure-learning context of the summer school impacts on participants’ musical identity, and can serve both to challenge and reinforce hierarchical status relationships between vocational and avocational musicians.
Abigale D'Amore and Gareth Dylan Smith
The chapter discusses the centrality of music making to the lives of young people, framing teenagers’ out-of-school music making and attendant identity realization as leisure activities. It presents arguments for including in school music classrooms the music that students enjoy outside of school. It describes Musical Futures, an approach to informal music learning developed from understanding how popular musicians learn and adopting these practices for the music classroom. Citing examples of nationwide research on Musical Futures from secondary schools in England, the chapter balances benefits and challenges of adopting the approach, and considers implications of a focus in school on the process rather than the product of music making. The authors argue that framing and aspiring to music making as leisure through this particular pedagogical approach could stand to benefit students, teachers, schools, and society.
Samuel Leong, Pamela Burnard, Neryl Jeanneret, Bo Wah Leung, and Carole Waugh
This article presents six case studies from England, Australia, and Hong Kong, which illustrate the different ways creativity in music is defined and assessed by teachers and learners in various educational contexts. It considers the influence of educational policies on the assessment of musical creativity. It also examines the key features of music creativity assessment in order to draw parallels between various contexts. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for classroom practice.
This essay examines how undergraduate composition teachers assess growth in their students’ work, and shows how assessment frameworks (such as rubrics) can be useful for college composition students and professors alike. The essay presents interviews with university composition faculty to establish the assessment strategies generally used in lessons. Next, it looks critically at existing frameworks and assessment philosophies, considering their strengths and shortcomings for departments whose students are growing ever more diverse in musical style and voice. Finally, it considers the composer’s task of designing an assessment framework for his or her studio, including areas of concern and possible starting points for organization.
Michele L. Henry
This article discusses the current state of assessment of student learning in the choral classroom. Assessing in the choral classroom presents many curricular and logistical challenges, the group instructional format and the large number of students enrolled being chief among them. A lack of preparation for and tradition in assessment further serves to discourage choral educators from assessing appropriately. Most of the available information about choral assessment comes from anecdotal evidence and advocacy pieces; however, researchers are making significant strides, particularly in the development of performance rating scales and sight-reading assessment. Very little assessment of knowledge-based content or written expressions is occurring, either in the classroom or by researchers. University choral education faculty must make instruction in assessment techniques a priority within the undergraduate curriculum rather than part of graduate study, as new teachers are expected to assess their students almost immediately upon entering the classroom.
Assessment in General Music Education from Early Childhood through High School: A Review of Literature
Julie Kastner and Heather Shouldice
This literature review synthesizes and analyzes research on assessment in general music from early childhood through secondary schools. Literature has been analyzed for content being assessed, forms of assessment used, frequency of assessments, teachers’ perceptions and beliefs about assessment, and teachers’ professional development experiences and needs. Findings reveal that the content, forms, and practices of assessment vary according to the amount of autonomy teachers have in assessing their curricula, teachers’ beliefs about assessment, and national and state policies. This is particularly evident when comparing elementary general music teachers in the United States, who have little accountability for conducting assessments, and secondary general music teachers in countries like the United Kingdom and Australia, where they have required composition assessments. This analysis also reveals a need for greater professional development for general music teachers to develop strategies for implementing authentic, valid assessments and using assessment data to support and inform their teaching.
Joshua A. Russell
Assessment is a necessary and challenging task for many instrumental music educators. Limited instructional time, little to no assessment training, and large class sizes are but a few of the often cited reasons for the current state of assessment in instrumental music. Some steps, however, can be taken to improve student achievement in music through better assessment practices. In this chapter, I will focus on the assessment of student learning and achievement in the instrumental music classroom. I review the status of assessment, the differences between instrumental and choral assessment practices, rating scales, assessing musical knowledge, self-assessment, peer assessment, the psychological impact of assessment, technology in assessment, standardized tests, and the impact of case law on assessment. The chapter concludes with a series of general recommendations for improved assessment strategies.