Edward S. Shapiro, Jaime Benson, Nathan Clemens, and Karen L. Gischlar
The assessment of academic skills is an essential and critical component of the life of all schools. Like the assessment of other areas of functioning, assessment of academic skills needs to include multiple methods, multiple modalities, and multiple perspectives to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the problem. The process of assessment needs to cut across the range of direct and indirect approaches in order to capture a complete viewpoint of the academic skill problems that the student is experiencing. Included in the chapter are brief reviews of direct assessment methods built on observation, curriculum-based assessment, normative or criterion-referenced standardized tests, permanent product or portfolio review, as well as indirect methods built upon rating scales and interviews with teachers and students.
Academic Interventions: What School Psychologists Need to Know for Their Assessment and Problem Solving Consultation Roles
Virginia W. Berninger, Michel Fayol, and Nicole Alston–Abel
This chapter provides an overview of critical concepts about academic interventions that school psychologists can apply in their assessment (prevention and diagnosis) and problem solving consultation roles. Topics covered include (a) general principles from research on reading, writing, math, and science instruction and learning; (b) home–school relationships; and (c) issues of diversity, motivation, and interpersonal relationships. School psychologists are encouraged to read widely and deeply the research literature on academic instruction and learning, to which many disciplines have contributed. School psychologists are also encouraged to practice and master the artful transformation of that research knowledge to the individual case at hand within a specific social context, including the family, classroom, school, community, and culture.
Rosemary S.C. Horne and Sarah N. Biggs
Although polysomnography is the gold standard for recording sleep, the use of actigraphy in conjunction with a sleep diary is now common in the study of sleep/wake patterns in infants, children, and adolescents. Actigraphy has the advantage of being able to record data over long periods of time while the subject carries out his or her normal routine. The devices are small, lightweight, and can be worn on the wrist in a similar manner to a wristwatch, or on the ankle as is often used in infant studies. A number of studies have validated actigraphy against polysomnography for determining sleep and found good agreements; however, the specificity for determining wake is low across all ages of children. In conjunction with a sleep diary, the accuracy of actigraphy is significantly improved. Conversely, accuracy of parental reporting of sleep and wake using a sleep diary can be significantly improved when used in conjunction with actigraphy. The use of actigraphy in clinical medicine is expanding as it provides important supplementary information to clinicians regarding a variety of sleep disorders.
Matthew A. Diemer and Brooke A. Seyffert
Irving B. Weiner
Despite their best intentions, practitioners of personality assessment sometimes painfully discover they have paid insufficient attention to what they should or should not have done. This article addresses ways in which personality assessors can anticipate ethical and legal challenges, and, by so doing, avoid them. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct is an ethics code that rests on the fundamental requirement for psychologists to be knowledgeable and responsible professionals who respect the rights and dignity of others, show concern for the welfare of their clients and colleagues, and present themselves fairly and honestly to their patients and their communities. Five sequential phases of clinical personality assessment, in each of which lurk some ethical and legal hazards, must be considered: accepting a referral; selecting the test battery; conducting the psychological testing; preparing and presenting a report; and managing case records.
Janet P. Patterson
Theoretically grounded aphasia assessment that matches clinical practice settings is critical to planning intervention and assisting individuals with aphasia and their family members. This chapter begins with an overview of aphasia assessment in three historical periods: clinical description prior to 1935, standardized testing into the 1960s, and the postmodern era of multifaceted assessment. Topics in this section include aphasia classification; screening; assessing specific linguistic ability, functional communication, and quality of life; and assessment within cognitive neuropsychological and information-processing models. The second section describes contemporary assessment practices including the purpose and models of assessment, personal and environmental factors influencing assessment decisions, assessing conversation and connected speech, and related assessment areas such as cognition, executive function, and emotional state. Finally, emerging trends in assessment are discussed including evidence-based practice, treatment candidacy and prognosis, psychosocial models of assessment, and telehealth. Successful aphasia assessment should be a principled, systematic, and dynamic component of managing and living with aphasia.
Jonathan Gratch and Stacy C. Marsella
This chapter is from the forthcoming The Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing edited by Rafael Calvo, Sidney K. D'Mello, Jonathan Gratch, and Arvid Kappas. This chapter discusses appraisal theory, the most influential theory of emotion in affective computing today, including how appraisal theory arose, some of its well-known variants, and why appraisal theory plays such a prominent role in computational models of emotion. The authors describe the component model framework, a useful framework for organizing and contrasting alternative computational models of emotion and outline some of the contemporary computational approaches based on appraisal theory and the practical systems they help support. Finally, the authors discuss open challenges and future directions.
Richard A. Bryant
There is significant change in acute stress reactions in the weeks after exposure to a traumatic event, which raises challenges for assessing the responses in the acute posttraumatic period. This chapter reviews the assessment tools and strategies that are appropriate in the acute period. It focuses initially on acute stress disorder (ASD) as a description of acute posttraumatic stress and as a predictor of subsequent PTSD. Psychometrically-validated scales are reviewed for both diagnostic and symptom responses in the acute period, with a critique of the limited ability of these measures to identify most people who are at high risk for subsequent PTSD. Finally, this chapter identifies mechanisms that may enhance our ability to identify maladaptive responses in the acute phase, and specific populations that need particular attention in the immediate period following trauma exposure. The weeks following exposure to a traumatic event are often characterized by considerable distress, fluctuating emotions, and changing environmental factors. This lack of emotional and contextual stability raises significant challenges for assessment of psychological states shortly after trauma. This chapter aims to provide an overview of assessment of psychological responses in the weeks after trauma. It commences with a review of the current evidence about the nature of acute posttraumatic stress reactions and discusses the different goals of assessment at this stage. Established psychometric instruments are then reviewed, including structured clinical interviews, self-report measures, and other tools relevant to acute reactions. The review then turns to other factors that can be assessed, including cognitive and biological factors, occurring in the acute posttraumatic period. Finally, the chapter outlines other procedural issues that need to be considered when assessing trauma survivors in the acute phase.
Ken Winters, Tamara Fahnhorst, Andria Botzet, Randy Stinchfield, and Ali Nicholson
This chapter addresses several assessment and measurement issues relevant to adolescent drug abuse. Both researchers and clinicians working with youth suspected of problems associated with drug involvement are considered as the following topics are discussed: principles of assessment, validity of self-report, clinical domains of interest, instrumentation, clinical considerations when assessing youth, and assessing treatment outcome. Despite some research gaps, the field consists of several psychometrically sound screening and comprehensive assessment tools to assist researchers and clinicians when measuring drug use, drug problems, symptoms of substance use disorders, and behavioral problems that commonly coexist with drug involvement. Future research needs are also discussed, including the need for more psychometric data on sub-populations of young people defined by age and ethnicity/race.
Edward J. Cumella and Jennifer Lafferty O'Connor
The MMPI-A is a sophisticated self-report instrument that allows clinicians to assess psychopathology in adolescent clients despite complex developmental, clinical, and methodological issues which can interfere with the psychological assessment of teens. It includes Validity Scales that measure the extent to which an adolescent responds to questions in a cooperative and truthful manner. The MMPI-A also includes ten basic Clinical Scales, fifteen Content Scales, thirty-one Content Component Scales, and forty-two Supplementary Scales. MMPI-A profiles require specialized knowledge and training to correctly interpret adolescent functioning and psychopathology. Computer-driven scoring and reporting may assist clinicians in accurate, comprehensive, and integrated interpretation of the MMPI-A's many scales. The MMPI-A can be used to provide feedback to adolescents about their self-reported psychopathology and gain their cooperation with the therapeutic process.
Carl B. Gacono and J. Reid Meloy
Understanding that antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are distinct but related constructs is crucial to clinical and forensic assessment of these patients. This article describes the use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Rorschach, and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for a comprehensive evaluation of these patients. These measures lend incremental validity to understanding these difficult patients, especially when combined with testing of intelligence and cognitive functioning. Integrating data from multiple domains is essential to answering the psycholegal and forensic treatment questions surrounding the antisocial and psychopathic patient. The forensically trained clinical psychologist is best suited to assess psychopathy, a task that historically has been overlooked or avoided in traditional mental health settings.
Dustin B. Hammers, Kevin Duff, and Gordon J. Chelune
This chapter describes methods of evaluating cognitive change over time using evidence-based practices in the field of clinical neuropsychology. While doing so, a description of cognitive changes during the ‘normal’ ageing process is undertaken, followed by a brief review of cognitive trajectories for a few syndromes associated with abnormal decline. A discussion of the practice of clinical neuropsychology ensues, accompanied by concerns arising when using traditional single time-point assessments. The benefits of and challenges to using serial assessments are also discussed, as well as a basic review of the statistical methods available to identify reliable change over time. The chapter concludes with proposed research directions for the field to better tailor the use of cognitive trajectories to monitor predicted decline in the individual patient.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex and debilitating disorder that has a high degree of comorbidity and functional impairment, and significant impact on the family. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of comorbidity, family, insight, and quality of life issues, and to review assessment and treatment implications of those issues. Measures for assessing relevant constructs are described.
Douglas K. Snyder, Richard E. Heyman, and Stephen N. Haynes
Couple distress has a high prevalence as well as high comorbidity with a broad range of emotional, behavioral, and physical health problems. Marriage and relationship problems also influence individuals' response to treatment for a wide range of psychological disorders. Hence, clinicians need to be skilled in conducting clinical assessment involving relationships in order to provide effective interventions, whether working primarily with individuals, couples, or the broader family system. This article first introduces brief screening measures and clinical methods for diagnosing couple distress in clinical as well as research applications. It then conceptualizes and assesses couple distress for the purpose of planning and evaluating treatment. The article also reviews empirical findings regarding behavioral, cognitive, and affective components of couple distress, and specific techniques derived from clinical interviews, behavioral observations, and self-reports. Finally, it considers emerging technologies for assessing intimate relationships and makes recommendations for future research.
Jessica R. Grisham and Alishia D. Williams
The assessment of hoarding has evolved over the past two decades to more appropriately capture its key features and associated phenomena. The authors describe a comprehensive and multimethod approach to assessment, which includes questionnaires, pictorial assessment, interview-based measures, behavioral tasks, and the incorporation of reports of family members and clinicians. It begins by reviewing self-report and interview-based measures of hoarding symptoms and providing relevant psychometric information and clinical-cut off scores. It then provides information regarding the assessment of clinical features commonly associated with hoarding, such as hoarding-related beliefs, excessive acquisition, and comorbid psychopathology. It concludes the chapter by noting specific clinical considerations when assessing an individual with hoarding problems and suggesting future directions in the assessment of hoarding, including the incorporation of more standardized behavioral measures of discarding, acquiring, and categorizing.
Nicole M. Dorfan and Sheila R. Woody
This chapter describes methods and tools for assessing obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The chapter outlines the purposes of assessment and discusses special challenges presented by OCD, such as shame associated with socially unacceptable obsessional content. Several types of assessment tools are discussed, including structured diagnostic interviews, semistructured clinician interviews to assess OCD symptom profile and severity, self-report instruments, behavioral assessment and self-monitoring, assessment of appraisals and beliefs relevant to OCD, and functional impairment. The importance of linking assessment findings to an evidence-based treatment plan is discussed.
Michelle J. Bovin and Frank W. Weathers
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious and prevalent mental disorder that poses a number of significant challenges for accurate assessment and diagnosis. In this chapter we describe some of the most widely used PTSD assessment tools for adult trauma survivors, including structured interviews, self-report measures, and psychophysiological methods. We also discuss several key issues in PTSD assessment, including identifying an index traumatic event for symptom inquiry, linking symptoms to the index event, and detecting exaggerated symptom reporting. We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions for research on PTSD assessment.
Darren W. Holowka and Brian P. Marx
Previous research has shown that PTSD is associated with impairments in functioning across a variety of domains and decrements in quality of life. In this chapter, we review the literature on the assessment of PTSD-related impairments in functioning and quality of life. We first discuss the importance of assessing PTSD-related impairments in quality of life and functioning. We then review some important methodological concerns related to the assessment of these constructs. Finally, we review some of the most commonly used assessment tools and discuss recent efforts to develop and validate a new assessment tool to assess PTSD-related functional impairment.
Sonja March, Alexandra De Young, Belinda Dow, and Justin Kenardy
The literature concerning the assessment of posttrauma reactions is well developed for adults, but this is not so for children and adolescents, especially young children. This chapter covers some key trauma-assessment issues in the child and adolescent population, which includes derivation and validation problems, the influence of developmental factors, applicability of current diagnostic classification, and the use of multiple informants. The range of available assessment measures is then reviewed, including semi-structured and self-report measures of posttraumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, and dissociation. Available screening measures and physiological measures are also reviewed. Directions for future work in this area are made.
Michael S. McCloskey, Mitchell E. Berman, and Kurtis Noblett
Intermittent explosive disorder (IED), a DSM-IV-TR disorder characterized by significant acts of aggression and violence, is being increasingly recognized as a prevalent and chronic disorder. Given the personal, social, and economic costs associated with IED, there is a clear need for well-validated assessment measures and efficacious treatments. However, there are currently no published, well-validated diagnostic measures of IED. With regard to treatment, preliminary evidence from a few randomized clinical trials suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy may be effective in treating IED. However, more research is needed before either can be considered an empirically supported treatment for IED. In this chapter, we discuss (1) challenges in developing reliable and valid assessments for IED and (2) issues relevant to developing and testing psychological and pharmacological treatment interventions for IED.