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The African American Psyche, 1865–Present: An Overview  

Claude Steele and Jennifer Richeson

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
There are multiple possible views of the Black American psyche. But in the science that focuses on the psyche, the science of psychology, there has really been only variants of one view: ... More

An American Conundrum: Race, Sociology, And The African American Road To Citizenship  

Lawrence D. Bobo

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The question of race lies at the heart of one of the great debates of American ideas and scholarly discourse. At one end of this debate we can find those who argue for the American Liberal ... More

The Amorphous Relationship between Congress and the Courts  

Michael A. Bailey, Forrest Maltzman, and Charles R. Shipan

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
The relationship between Congress and the judiciary is a complex one that is poorly defined or understood. This ambiguity in the relationship is the result of the failure of the ... More

Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Judicial Review  

Jerry L. Mashaw

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article describes how the limitations on managerial and political control of administration yield an almost necessary demand for legal control through judicial review. Judicial review ... More

The Carceral State and American Political Development  

Amy E. Lerman and Vesla M. Weaver

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2014
Since mid-century, the capacity of the United States to punish and surveil its citizenry has undergone tremendous expansion. Yet this phenomenal transformation and its repercussions for ... More

Church and State in Nineteenth-Century America  

Steven K. Green

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The nineteenth century is tagged as the “forgotten century” for traditional reviews of American church–state relations. Most of the case books and historical studies of the church and ... More

Congress and National Security  

Nina M. Serafino and Eleni G. Ekmektsioglou

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Congress may not be seen as a major player in U.S. national security, but it is congressional action that sets the foundation on which national security policy is constructed. ... More

Constitutional Language and Judicial Interpretations of the Free Exercise Clause  

Bette Novit Evans

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
While the opening words of the U.S. Bill of Rights symbolize national commitment to religious liberty by stating that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, ... More

Constitutional Law and American Politics  

Mark A. Graber

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Public law scholars whose scholarship focuses primarily on the public conflicts between constitutional authorities fail to appreciate how constitutional law influences politics and ... More

The Economy and the Black Citizen, 1900 to World War II  

Gerald Jaynes

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Three major economic events structured African Americans' economic status during the first half of the twentieth century: the economic boom of the 1914–1918 World War I era initiated the ... More

Eighteenth-Century Religious Liberty: The Founding Generation’s Protestant-Derived Understanding  

Barry Alan Shain

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article discusses the liberty accorded to religion. In the eighteenth century, religious liberty, like any other understanding of liberty, enjoyed multiple, contested, and evolving ... More

Emancipation and Reconstruction: African American Education, 1865–1919  

Joy Ann Williamson-Lott, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Maria E. Hyler

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Emancipation and the end of the Civil War forced the nation to grapple with the question of how to integrate and adjust these new black citizens into the fabric of America. Blacks pushed ... More

The Expansion of Economic Rights since World War II  

Gerald Jaynes

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
As it had during the Depression in the 1930s and boom of the 1940s, the economy's macroeconomic performance remained crucial to African American status during the half century following ... More

The Family  

Patricia Strach

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
Though family is often seen as private and outside the sphere of politics, some scholars have demonstrated the important role family plays in American politics over time. Integrating ... More

From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part I: Racial Attitudes in the United States during World War II, 1939–1945  

Maria Krysan

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Relations between blacks and whites in the United States over the course of American history can be characterized at different points by oppression, conflict, neglect, ambivalence, ... More

From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part III: Contemporary Era Racial Attitudes, 1976–2004  

Maria Krysan

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The ideology of color blindness does not reflect the reality of the experiences of blacks and whites in America today. Racial inequality persists on all manner of social indicators, from ... More

From Retrenchment to Renewal: African American Education, 1975–Present  

Linda Darling-Hammond, Maria E. Hyler, and Joy Ann Williamson-Lott

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Interpretations of the gaps in educational achievement between white and non-Asian minority students as measured by standardized test scores are at the center of many debates. The ... More

Identity and Law in American Political Development  

Julie Novkov

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2014
Recently, scholars studying American law and identity have adopted American Political Development (APD)’s focus on institutions in generating, shaping, and thwarting change. Their work has ... More

Judicial Checks on the President  

Keith E. Whittington

Print publication date:
Aug 2009
Online publication date:
May 2010
This article summarizes the judicial checks on the presidency from two perspectives. The first perspective describes the doctrinal framework within which the courts consider executive ... More

The Judiciary and Judicial Reform  

Patricia E. Salkin and Amy Lavine

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article describes the judiciary and judicial reform in New York. Reform has been ongoing, and in recent years the courts in New York have evolved into a unified system to manage ... More

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