Friedrich Lösel and Doris Bender
This article studies child social skills training, which can be easily implemented by teachers in schools or preschools. This training aims to prevent antisocial development in children, which may ultimately lead to criminal behavior in the future. The discussion begins with a brief conceptual and theoretical background of child social skills training. It is then followed by a description of some leading child skills programs, such as the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) and Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS). Finally, this article considers the effects and effectiveness of these programs.
Brandon C. Welsh
Delinquency prevention involves intervening in the lives of children and youths before they engage in delinquency. Delinquency control or repression responds to individuals after a delinquent act has been committed. Delinquency prevention takes place outside of the juvenile justice system, but delinquency prevention programs are not designed with the intention of excluding justice personnel. This article reviews the research on and key issues facing the prevention of delinquency. It opens by drawing attention to two important yet divergent issues confronting the present state and future of delinquency prevention, which are, research in prevention of delinquency, and the reality of policy and practice. It reviews scientific evidence on what works to prevent delinquency through individual, family, and environmental interventions that are delivered in the early years of the life course. Finally, it examines the implications of this research for juvenile justice policy and practice.
Doris Layton MacKenzie and Rachel Freeland
Much controversy exists about the use of juvenile residential programs for delinquents. They are argued to be inherently detrimental by some, means of rehabilitation by others, and still others argue that they should be employed only when the juvenile is a danger to self or others and that appropriate programming can be successfully employed in such institutions. This article reviews the literature on the effectiveness of juvenile residential programs with an emphasis on the impact on later criminal or delinquent behavior. The research reviewed does not support the perspective that incarceration is successful in deterring juveniles, nor do all facilities have detrimental impacts. But the article does state that programming brings about cognitive transformations and may be the most effective method in reducing recidivism. In general, the impact of programs is similar for different races, ethnicities, genders, or ages. Studies have not demonstrated differences between these groups in terms of the impact on recidivism.
Christopher J. Sullivan and Darrick Jolliffe
There are a lot of criminological theories that state that criminal behavior is more or less likely dependent upon peers and the value placed on shared relationships. This article studies the nature and impact of programs designed to resist forming attachments to undesirable peers and programs designed to create attachments to desirable prosocial models. It summarizes the theoretical beliefs that provide a foundation for the anticipated impact of peer risk and mentoring programs. Next, it provides an overview of peer risk interventions and considers some of the characteristics of these programs. It also discusses the evaluation methods and the limits of programs aimed at peer risk.
Doris Layton MacKenzie
This article discusses management of and programming for offenders and delinquents using an evidence-based perspective. It notes that these two strategies can help reduce future criminal behavior and activities. It examines the changing correctional perspectives,—including the rehabilitation model and the justice model—its impact on US corrections, and the reasons for these changes. This article also uses meta-analyses and systematic reviews in order to study the effectiveness of these different types of programs.
Denise C. Gottfredson, Philip J. Cook, and Chongmin Na
Student misbehavior, which includes school violence and bullying, interfere with academic achievements and is one of the major sources of teacher turnover in American schools. This article shows how schools can be organized and managed in order to minimize and prevent student misbehavior. It identifies the kinds of practices and policies they can adopt to decrease the levels of victimization, violence, substance use, and crime both in and out of schools. It considers the research conducted on the effectiveness of curriculum-based prevention programs. It then presents evidence that shows that how the school is organized and managed also influences school behavior and problem behavior. This article also discusses discipline management and school culture and explains how these can be used to reduce crime and other related problem behaviors.
Donna M. Bishop and Barry C. Feld
Over the last century, the juvenile justice system has strayed far, opposed of its foundational ideals. Attentiveness to children's needs has given way to concentration on the offense. Emphasis on punishment and accountability has overshadowed the social welfare model. This article examines trends in juvenile justice policy and practice. It opens with a brief overview of the early juvenile court, its philosophical underpinnings and historic mission. Following this, the article scans the due process revolution of the 1960s and 1970s and assesses its intended and unintended consequences. It focuses on punitive shifts in the 1980s and 1990s, their structural and political origins, and their impact on the juvenile justice landscape. Finally it takes a look at a number of policies and programs that have emerged in the past decade. It concludes by calling for a much-needed correction to the punitive excesses to shift toward more sensible and humane practices.