Anthony A. Braga
This article assesses the theoretical and empirical evidence on the concentration of crime in a small number of places and times, and the concentration of offending among a small number of very active offenders. It describes the salience of co-offending to serious crime problems, and then studies the relationship between place dynamics and high-crime times, as well as some significant criminological theories and perspectives. The article also studies the concepts of urban violence, repeat victimization, and crime hot spots. It also shows how citywide crime rates can be controlled by focusing on crime-prevention resources on high-crime places, times, and offenders.
Melissa Schaefer Morabito
The police role necessitates response to a wide variety of calls for service including those involving vulnerable populations. Vulnerability, however, is a difficult term to define and operationalize for police practitioners. It is a label that can be applied to diverse and large population including people who are physically ill, elderly, homeless, disabled, or have a mental illness. Vulnerability can be a descriptor of a substantial portion of the population with host of attributes that can be permanent or temporary.