Deborah Gorman-Smith and Alana M. Vivolo
This article discusses female delinquency and offending. It reviews some related literature in order to update the prevention efforts. The first section presents data on the rates and patterns of offending among girls and shows how these have developed over the years. It then studies the predictors and correlates of involvement among females that should be considered whenever prevention programs are developed and implemented. This article also tries to determine if interventions for girls have had any program impact and if there is any difference on the impact between interventions directed towards girls and boys.
Holly S. Schindler and Hirokazu Yoshikawa
This article considers the potential of preschool interventions to prevent crime. It highlights how certain kinds of preschool programs may help decrease crime later in life, and how prevention during early childhood can be viewed as reducing levels of early behavior problems and improving social-emotional development. It identifies some possible pathways of prevention, which includes child- and parent-based pathways. This is followed by a discussion of some interventions that target both child- and parent-based pathways. This article also considers some cross-cutting issues that are important across various intervention strategies in prevention science in preschool.
David P. Farrington, Rolf Loeber, and Maria M. Ttofi
This article studies risk and the most important changeable factors for offending. It takes a look at the individual factors of impulsivity/hyperactivity and intelligence/attainment, and then evaluates the family factors of child-rearing methods, specifically supervision and discipline, young mothers and child abuse, disrupted families, and conflicts between parents. The next section discusses the social factors of peer influence, neighborhood factors, and socioeconomic status. This article also reviews research on protective and promotive factors.