Robert D. Klassen and Stephan Vachon
Any definition of greener supply chain management must capture design; material selection, extraction, and sourcing; manufacturing; logistics and delivery; and end-of-life management. Two major extensions of the operations system include from operations at a single firm to operations across the supply chain, and from the one-way supply chain to the closed loop. Both influence and accountability affect how a firm might position itself within the supply chain on particular environmental issues, and the means available to manage performance. The potential competitive advantage generated by environmental collaboration is addressed. Tightening environmental legislation generates opportunities to introduce new value-added services and products. Life cycle assessment encourages firms to look beyond first-tier suppliers to the entire supply chain. System-based measurement and stronger integration of the social bottom line in supply chains are areas that hold promise for both research and practice in the short to medium term.
Christoph Loch and Stylianos Kavadias
The realization is growing that projects fail not only because of incompetent execution, but also, and frequently, because of a muddled strategic context, inadequate scope, or unarticulated—and thus unresolved—tensions and/or trade-offs among the project stakeholders. This realization has a straightforward message: project managers could benefit a great deal from expanding their activity to account for strategy alignment and organizational enablers. This article proposes that this view, although a step forward, still decouples project management from strategy-making. It implies that the business people set the outcomes and charter, and project management executes. Yet, this view misses the fact that strategy is not made only “at the top” and then cascaded down. In a world of increasing uncertainty, volatility, and interdependence across forms, industries, and countries, strategy is emergent; it has to adjust to events as they occur.
This review examines the project based organization literature as applied to creative industries. The industries referenced in this review include those in the popular classifications such as DCMS (Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 1998), namely advertising, architecture, art and antiques, computer games, crafts, design, designer fashion, film and video, music, performing arts, publishing, software, TV and radio (Cunningham, 2002). The review opens with a definition of Project Based Organization and locates PBO within various literature definitions. Next the review examines three elements of all Project Based Organizations: 1. the project Roles and identities of project participants, 2. the Relationships amongst project participants (including both past, current and prospective relationships) from both an internal project team and external project network perspective, and 3. the Routines that provide either experimental variation or procedural continuity and efficiency within and across projects that arise within project based organizations. The review will seek to identify some recurring challenges or dilemmas regarding roles, relationships and routines within creative sector based Project Based organizations and suggest patterns of resolutions of those challenges or dilemmas from the extant PBO literature. The paper concludes with an examination of three contexts relevant to resolving these PBO challenges.
This article first lists the general characteristics of major publich projects and programmes. These projects are deeply problematic, because they produce failure upon failure. Most of the time this impacts people mainly in terms of financial losses, which is bad enough for taxpayers and other investors who fund major projects. But worse, particular groups, who are often already disadvantaged, are sometimes forced to carry a disproportionate share of negative environmental and social impacts from projects that do not even deliver the promised benefits. This article uncovers the deeper causes of cost overruns and benefit shortfalls. In addition, possible solutions to the problems are described.
Karlos Artto, Andrew Davies, Jaakko Kujala, and Andrea Prencipe
Project business is an emerging research field, which adopts a business-centric view to the management of projects, firms, and networks of projects and firms. Project business has been defined as “the part of business that relates directly or indirectly to projects, with the purpose of achieving the objectives of a firm or several firms”. Relying on existing research, this article identifies firstly, the managerial challenges for successful management of projects and project-based firms and secondly, the research themes and opportunities that may enhance our understanding of project business. It uses the term “project-based firm” to refer both to firms that conduct part of their operations using projects and to firms that organize most of their internal and external activities in projects. Project-based firms and organizations are found in a wide range of industries, such as consulting and professional services, cultural industries, high technology, and complex products and systems.
Gernot Grabher and Oliver Ibert
The notion “project ecology” provides a conceptual framework for analyzing projects from a contextual view. In short, project ecologies denote a relational space which affords the personal, organizational, and institutional resources for performing projects. This relational space encompasses social layers on multiple scales, from the micro level of interpersonal networks to the meso level of intra- and inter-organizational collaboration to the macro level of wider institutional settings. Moreover, it unfolds a complex geography, which explicitly is not reduced to local clusters but also extends to more distanced individuals and organizations or a-spatial institutions. One of the main fields in which the contextual view generated new insights is the topic of project-based learning. Through their trans-disciplinarity and transience, projects appear as a most pertinent form for creating knowledge in the context of application.
This article focuses on governance and its related subset project governance. The complementary perspectives of transaction cost economics (TCE), agency theory, and organizational control are taken to develop an overview of governance in organizations, which is subsequently extended into the realm of projects and their management. Research in governance theory is reviewed, starting from the organizational level and developing towards project specific governance models. Finally an attempt is made to identify the boundaries and issues of project governance, which should be of interest for the project management-focused research community.
Tara Vinodrai and Sean Keddy
This article argues that geography matters to the formation and dynamics of project ecologies in the creative industries. The article begins by discussing how work is organized in the creative industries, emphasizing the role of project ecologies as a key mechanism by which workers and firms innovate and learn, as well as the consequences for individual workers in terms of risk. The article argues that, in the creative industries, geography matters to the dynamics of project ecologies and their underlying local labour markets in three distinct ways. First, local networks play an important role in learning, knowledge exchange, and job search. Second, local scenes or spaces within cities act as critical infrastructure for project ecologies. These local scenes and spaces provide opportunities for creative workers to ‘hang out’ in places where they can tune into background ‘noise’ and ‘buzz’. These distinctive urban environments have unique identity and place characteristics, which become embedded in products, enhancing their competitiveness. Finally, there are nuanced differences in its articulation and outcomes of project-based work in creative industries that are dependent on geographic, industrial and institutional context.
This article provides a comprehensive overview of one of the main areas where corporate social responsibility issues have impacted upon firms across the globe, namely the supply chain. Although the legal obligations for social and environmental issues are increasingly devolved to suppliers, the role of lead firms in the development of ethical supply chain management (ESCM) has been the subject of considerable debate. This article focuses on two questions which are central to the development of ESCM. First, it looks at stakeholder pressure for ESCM and its implications for the involvement of lead firms in ESCM. Second, it considers the conditions under which lead firms will be able to influence suppliers and implement ESCM. It then reviews the impact of ESCM on social and environmental performance. Finally, it outlines the implications for the development of effective ESCM.