John L. Graham
Culture has a pervasive impact on the management of human resources. Culture influences how blue- and white-collar workers respond to pay and non- pay incentives, how international firms are organized, the success of multinational work teams, and even how executives compose and implement business strategies. This article is organized as follows: First, the central notion of culture is defined including discussion of its dimensions and measurement. Next, culture's influences on interpersonal behaviours and negotiation styles are presented. Third, human resources policies are outlined that take into account cultural differences in employee groups. The final section focuses on culture's impact on managers' and policymakers' strategic thinking.
Bruce E. Kaufman
The human resource function in the business enterprise has its origins in the rise of modern industry in the late nineteenth century. This article provides a survey of its historical development both as a functional area of management practice and as an area of research and teaching in universities. Although, for reasons to be described, the bulk of attention is on the United States, The article endeavors to put the subject in an international context. Also provided is an account of the field's progress, shortcomings, and controversies.
Stephen Wood and Lilian M. de Menezes
Family-friendly, equal-opportunity, and high-involvement initiatives have increasingly been at the forefront of discussions of human resource management since the 1990s. They are widely viewed by academics and policy makers as critical ways of simultaneously improving the well-being of workers and the efficiency of organizations. Moreover, they are often presented as related practices. This article first discusses how they are perceived to be related and the research thus far on their links to organizational performance. It then reports a study designed to test these associations.
Banu Ozkazanc-Pan and Marta B. Calás
This chapter draws boundaries to define the contours of the contemporary transnational diversity in organizations scholarly literature. It is not intended as an exhaustive review of what may have now become an incommensurable literature; rather, it delineates a temporary holding space for understanding this shifting territory while exploring a few relevant examples. As a taxonomical exercise, it follows the formation and transformation of the subject of ‘diversity in organizations’ as it travelled beyond the original literature from the USA. It articulates four modes of diffusion occurring over time: internationalizing diversity; provincializing diversity; the simultaneity of diversity; and the formation of mobile subjectivities. The conclusion forwards the incommensurability of these perspectives as independent contributions, suggesting that anyone intending to represent ‘diversity and organizations’ in the contemporary world should consider the value of maintaining in view a repertoire of very different ontological perspectives on diversity, as well as a postidentitarian transnational understanding.
Mustafa Bilgehan Öztürk, Ahu Tatli, and Mustafa Özbilgin
Diversity management is an increasingly mature field defined by a wide array of conceptual approaches and competing discourses of diversity. This chapter briefly reviews the field of diversity to locate our discussion of a crucial problematic in global diversity management: implementing global diversity management standards locally. We take the UK as the local context for our analysis, and report findings from a study funded by the Equal Opportunities Commission on the use of equality and diversity tools. Our empirical evidence underscores the importance of localities and specific contexts, and emphasizes that equality and diversity tools can serve as an effective resource for local diversity officers of global firms to progress their agendas for organizational change locally. In the UK context effective diversity management crucially hinges on securing the buy-in of businesses and providing context-sensitive toolkits to local diversity management officers and organizational change agents to ensure equality and inclusion.
This article shows how, over the past four decades or so, the development strategies of the East-Asian nations interacted with the investment strategies of US-based ICT companies to generate a global supply of ICT labour. This process of developing a global ICT labour supply has entailed flows of US capital to East-Asian labour as well as flows of East-Asian labour to US capital. As a result new possibilities to pursue high-tech careers, and thereby develop their productive capabilities, have opened up to vast numbers of individuals in East-Asian nations. Many found the relevant educational programmes and work experience in their home countries. But many gained access to education and experience by following global career paths that included study and work in the US. For the East-Asian nations, the existence of these global career paths has posed a danger of ‘brain drain’: the global career path could come to an end in the US (or another advanced economy) rather than in the country where the individual had been born and bred.
This article surveys the development of human capital (HC) in developing countries, focusing on the significance of the Asian experience. Here, the trajectories of human and industrial capital development in the Asia Pacific region are investigated as the most promising developing region in economic terms, posing the critical questions of whether this region will succeed in joining the advanced industrial countries in the knowledge economy, and whether other developing countries and regions of the world can follow the same path. A central theme is how the countries of Asia have coped and will need to continue to cope in future with the shift to a globalized, knowledge-based economy. In this process of development, the article identifies a central role for HC while stressing the complementary nature of other forms of capital including social capital, financial capital, manufacturing capital, and natural capital.
William K. Roche, Paul Teague, and Alexander J. S. Colvin
The main purpose of the Introduction to Part 4 of the Handbook is to highlight the key arguments in the seven country case-study chapters on conflict management. The introduction argues that two key points emerged from the country chapters. One is that each country has its own distinctive system for the resolution of workplace conflict that was traditionally connected in one way or another to a wider system of collective industrial relations. The other is that each system despite being idiosyncratic is experiencing similar developments in relation to workplace conflict—the most common being the shift from collective to individual-based employment disputes. Thus, workplace conflict resolution across countries displays both converging and diverging tendencies. The introduction highlights that most national systems for workplace conflict resolution are seeking to innovate their policies and practices.
William N. Cooke
This article focuses on the salient human resource strategy issues and dynamics that come into play as a function of the multinational reach of companies. Although the overall objectives of formulating and implementing HR strategies are the same for national and multinational companies, global HR strategies must take into account factors germane to direct investments made abroad and the management of cross-border operations. At question herein, therefore, is: What factors or considerations are unique to companies operating across borders and what are the implications of these factors in regard to the successful development and deployment of global HR strategies? The article's aim in venturing to articulate a fairly encompassing framework is to stimulate further discussion and debate about how we can better frame our enquiries and analyses to improve our broader theoretical and practical understanding of global strategic HR issues.
Practices of Organizing and Managing Diversity in Emerging Countries: Comparisons between India, Pakistan, and South Africa
Anita Bosch, Stella M. Nkomo, Nasima MH Carrim, Rana Haq, Jawad Syed, and Faiza Ali
The chapter contextualizes and describes legislated, socio-political and organizational practices in managing diversity in three countries, namely India, Pakistan, and South Africa. The three countries serve as examples of emerging countries that have historical linkages with each other. Examples of how organizations within each country are responding to macro-level legislative practices are provided, highlighting the tensions and inconsistencies in applying legislation and its intent whilst dealing with country-specific realities. Diversity contrasts, such as integrating minorities in India and Pakistan, versus the integration of the majority in South Africa, are discussed, and attention is drawn to the emphasis placed on diversity categories such as gender and race. The chapter concludes with an overview of the differences in diversity management practices in the three countries.
Fang Lee Cooke
This chapter reviews the status quo of research on talent management in nations with emerging economies. It highlights a number of major challenges confronting these nations and some of the initiatives of the nation states to combat the bottleneck caused by talent shortages in their economic development. The chapter highlights the research conducted on various aspects of talent management, and it presents a set of research agendas for future studies. Further, it shows that research on talent management in emerging economies has largely focused on a small number of countries and multinational corporations. While there is a growing level of understanding of the effectiveness and types of talent-management activities in different national contexts and types of organizational settings, future research in this field would benefit from drawing on a broader set of disciplinary perspectives and using more robust research design and systematic analysis of practices, processes, and outcomes.
Ingmar Björkman, Mats Ehrnrooth, Kristiina Mäkelä, Adam Smale, and Jennie Sumelius
The focus of the chapter is on the practices used by multinational corporations (MNCs) to manage employees defined as “talent.” We examine the content of corporate practices, the actors involved in carrying out these practices and the roles they are playing, and the effects of these practices on outcomes at different levels of analysis. Efforts are made to identify promising ways to enhance our knowledge of talent management in the context of MNCs. By way of an illustration of the kinds of issues covered, we present the talent-management practices of one MNC in particular, the Finland-based elevator and escalator company KONE.
Shaista E. Khilji and Randall S. Schular
Talent-management research has primarily focused at the individual and organizational levels. While this work has added much value to the literature, we believe that shifting the focus to the macro context will further strengthen the field. This might include exploring country-level government activities that enhance a country’s talent levels; non-governmental initiatives to help various countries bolster their talent-management programs; global talent mobility; and knowledge transfer. To incorporate this focus more systematically, we present a conceptual framework for macro talent management. The framework draws our attention to the macro, global, and country context within which talent management occurs, as well illuminates its multiple processes and outcomes. We offer directions for future research and discuss implications for policy makers and companies.
Helen De Cieri
Globalization has impacted significantly on many firms, with substantial implications for human resource management (HRM). Geopolitical, social, economic, and technological changes have created opportunities for managers and employees to interact with culturally diverse populations. The development of cultural diversity in the workforce presents substantial and complex challenges for HR scholars and managers as they strive to determine the potential implications of cultural diversity for firm effectiveness. This article examines cultural diversity issues, which are increasingly viewed as a critical aspect of management in transnational firms.