Ben Ross Schneider
This article proceeds in several steps to analyze business politics in Latin America. The second section briefly reviews a general conceptual framework that distinguishes the sources of business preferences as well as a range of ways that business influences policy-makers. The third section takes these analytic building blocks and incorporates them into an examination of the dynamic, strategic interaction between business and government. This section develops the portfolio analysis of the range of political investments that business in Latin America typically employs, including lobbying, campaign finance, business associations, personal networks, and corruption.
Ivan Szelenyi and Katarzyna Wilk
As the post-communist societies are in the second phase of transition, there is a fundamental inconsistency in the logic of their economic and welfare institutions. This article argues that, in the early stages of transition, it was the reorganization of the economy that dominated the process of institutional change. For some forty years of socialism, the former socialist countries had been on a convergence trajectory. They had entered the socialist experiment at very different levels of economic development, with different institutional arrangements and major cultural–religious differences. Although these differences did not disappear altogether, they were substantially reduced. But as communism broke down, the old fault-lines re-emerged, and the European socialist countries split between Central and Eastern Europe. The article begins by conceptualizing these different trajectories in European socialist countries from socialism and then proceeds to show how this has impacted on the two phases of transformation that have taken place.
The rapid growth of international public management during the past two decades has gone largely unnoticed. Public sector institutions across the globe have been changing management practices, often using new (to them) approaches adopted from other countries. International institutions have been assembling knowledge about public management systems, developing guidelines for adopting them and fielding advisory teams to apply them to individual county circumstances. Profit-making consulting firms and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have built up substantial rosters of advisors on public management practice and stand ready to dispatch them to almost any part of the world, in some cases under conditions of hardship or danger. Thousands of documents on improving public management exist in file drawers and on computer disks around the world. Most are unanalysed and many ignored.
This article first reviews major explanations of the Japanese business–government model. Where it departs from general treatment of participation of business interests, it especially focuses on large Japanese multinational firms' lobbying strategies within the policy-making process. Then, in order to highlight the nature of the Japanese business–government model, the pattern of Japanese business lobbying is explained in detail, with special attention to firms' preferences for collective lobbying through their business associations and their lobbying instruments. In addition, the article refers to the development of Japanese business interests in the US and Europe, and points out the enduring national business culture among Japanese firms in the age of globalization.
Thomas L. Brewer and Stephen Young
The topic of this article — the multilateral regime for FDI — lies within the domain of international business studies that focus on multinational enterprises and their political environment. The topic is of increasing importance for MNEs' strategies and operations. Because of its centrality in the international trade–investment–technology transfer system, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is the specific focus of this article, though there is also some discussion of regional and bilateral agreements because they interact and overlap with WTO agreements. The relevance of the WTO to business strategy is evident in a variety of ways — in existing agreements, in negotiations to revise those agreements, in disputes, and in the expansion of its membership.