Donald M. Truxillo, David M. Cadiz, and Jennifer R. Rineer
This article examines the implications of an aging workforce for human resource management (HRM). It first looks at research and theories relevant to understanding age-related changes at work, including lifespan development theories, changes in work outcomes such as motivation and performance, and the social context for age (e.g., age stereotyping). It then considers the ways that organizations can keep their employees-including those who are aging-satisfied, engaged, productive, and healthy in their jobs in terms of traditional HR practices like recruitment and selection, training, career development, and occupational safety and health. Finally, it offers suggestions on how HRM can take age differences into account and identifies a number of areas for future research.
Evan Doran, Ian Kerridge, Christopher Jordens, and Ainsley J. Newson
This chapter discusses clinical ethics support services (CES Services), the development of which has arisen to help respond to ethical issues arising in health care settings. CES services are comprised of an individual or group, usually in an organization, who can provide a suite of services to support all stakeholders in identifying and managing ethical issues they face. While there is a degree of consensus about the potential value of such services, they are also the focus of ongoing theoretical, methodological and political debates. The aim of this chapter is to provide health care managers with an account of how and why CES services are becoming a part of the contemporary organizational landscape of health care, and describe the concerns that bioethicists and others have raised regarding their role, function and dissemination.
This article explores some of the ways in which men, in the context of Australia and the UK, ‘do’ gender in a non-traditional occupational context. It looks at the challenges men face in a non-traditional (e.g. service and/or caring) role and the strategies adopted to manage gender and occupational identity. It does this through the themes of bodies and embodiment, the gendering of service and care and the significance of gendered spaces. The article highlights how, by entering a non-traditional occupation, men simultaneously ‘do’ and ‘undo’ gender, acting to reinforce as well as to destabilize gender in its stereotypical forms.
Gregory Jackson and Anja Kirsch
In this chapter Gregory Jackson and Anja Kirsch review changes in employment relations in six countries broadly recognized as liberal market economies. They compare these cases on numerous indicators, including wages and inequality, collective bargaining, unions and employers’ associations, and employee voice institutions. While they find a common direction towards liberalization in all these cases, there remains substantial and often unrecognized diversity across these cases. Moreover, low levels of regulation in most of these domains translate into considerable internal diversity within these cases, since actors (corporations) have much greater latitude to choose employment relations strategies that suit their preferences.
Valerie N. Streets and Debra A. Major
This chapter explores the leaky pipeline model of career development, which describes how women and girls are disproportionately affected by obstacles encountered along the educational and career pathways (Major and Morganson 2008). We go beyond the existing model to identify opportunities for intervention and advancement in addition to gendered career obstacles. Four distinct phases are highlighted as they pertain to gendered career experiences: the formation of self-perceptions and career aspirations, workplace entry, workplace obstacles, and advancement. In tracing this pipeline, we make the case that progressive interventions are needed, as each leak in the career pipeline must be mended to best address the escalating under-representation of women across phases of career development.
Paul Thompson and Bill Harley
This article argues that there are at least three core claims to which most scholars of HRM subscribe. The first is that major changes in the nature of the environment in which organizations operate have placed pressure on organizations to be more strategic in their management of employees. This is the familiar view that most organizations are now operating in increasingly global, competitive, and volatile markets in which they must be flexible and able to develop unique products and services which are not easily imitable. Whilst some sector differentiation is made, according to most of the HRM literature it is through employees that such competitiveness can best be developed, because employees possess the kinds of skills that allow flexibility and which are difficult to imitate.
Kyle Bruce and Chris Nyland
As ritualistically conveyed in management and organization studies textbooks, the Human Relations ‘school’ of management (HRS) is understood to have emerged from investigations into human association in the workplace by Elton Mayo and his associates between 1924 and 1932 at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric. The HRS is said to have brought people’s social needs into the limelight and thereby increased their capacity for ‘spontaneous collaboration’ at work. This perspective, however, has been challenged by a growing body of scholars who have demonstrated that HRS provided employers with an authoritarian management model that held employees are irrational, agitation-prone individuals whose demand for better wages and working conditions was symptomatic of a deep psychosocial maladjustment. This perspective enabled employers to monopolise authority in the workplace and justify this monopoly on the grounds that workers lacked the rationality required to participate in management decision-making.
Nick Wailes and Russell D. Lansbury
This article seeks to modify and extend the Varieties of Capitalism (VofC) approach in a way that makes it possible for it to account for both within country diversity and the role which international factors play in shaping national patterns of participation. It does so by drawing on recent debates about the VofC approach in general and comparative corporate governance in particular. Both these literatures suggest the need for VofC analysis to adopt a less deterministic view of the role that institutions play in shaping social action, to focus more on the role of agency and interests, and to suggest the need to explore the interconnections between countries in more detail. The article uses this modified VofC framework to examine the extent to which it can help explain recent developments in two countries: the United Kingdom and Germany. It concludes by outlining suggestions for further research.
Samanthi J. Gunawardana and Lindah Mhando
This chapter explores the interplay of the migration–development nexus, unskilled women’s migration patterns, and the transitions taking place in and around global and local labour markets and employment relations. Although states have sought to both facilitate migration into precarious employment positions and to step in to protect workers, migration has exposed the limitations of extant paradigms that take nation-states as a unit of analysis for development and employment relations. The state’s role is underscored by the existence of a complex and textured field of gendered and socially embedded institutions and governance mechanisms, which has made migrant workers particularly vulnerable to precarious conditions.
Jeffrey Braithwaite and Liam Donaldson
Over the last 25 years we have learned how providers can fall short of their goals, and deliver care which is below expectations. In response, nations and the international community including the World Health Organization have developed strategies to tackle harm and improve the quality of care. Key approaches include strengthening management and leadership; designing improvement tools, models and approaches; enhancing teamwork, communication and local cultures; and leveraging opinion leaders and champions. A shift towards a systems perspective, factoring in the challenges of complexity and network characteristics, is evident. A safety-II approach, building on the naturally-occurring resilience of health systems, show much promise. But progress has been slow. We will need to be better at diffusing what we know works, scaling up localized, demonstrated successes, and supporting clinicians’ everyday capacities to succeed under varied conditions. Progress requires partnerships between politicians, policymakers, managers, clinicians, patients, researchers and other groups.
The chapter focuses on trade unionism, particularly over the last three decades. It begins the analysis with the observation that unions face challenges, relating to organization, capacity, and purpose. In the context of change in capitalist economies, some unions are beginning to renew themselves. However, this process is uneven. Unions face difficulties when the class composition and the politics associated with it changes, occasionally in dangerous and forbidding ways. The chapter discusses the prospects for a progressive and active form of unionism, characterized as social movement unionism. Nonetheless, the tensions between material concerns and alternatives about the ways in which society could be organized and may change remain in the forefront of union concern and purpose.
In this chapter Barbara Pocock explores gender and employment issues. She points to long historical legacies and continuities in work and gender, despite the changes brought about by neo-liberal reforms and broader associated processes of globalization. First, women do more unpaid domestic or ‘private work’, while many perform more ‘public’ paid work. Second, even in workplaces where the overwhelming majority of workers are male or female, gender issues manifest themselves in sexualized practices or culture. Third, the nature of social reproduction affects labour market participation of both genders. Fourth, dense fabrics of gender relations within institutions construct and reconstruct hierarchies on gender lines. Finally, institutions make for persistently uneven outcomes in work and employment according to gender. The gendered fortunes of those in the North and South have become increasingly interlinked; inequality can only be dealt with through concerted global resolve and action.