This article evaluates the influence of persuasion tactics, separating out buyer behavior that is driven by conscious and non-conscious goals. It then reviews the research relating to the explicit goals customers pursue. It also discusses the important theoretical distinctions alluded to in motivational psychology. Theories that are examined here include those relating to learning goals, implementation versus deliberation mindsets, action identification, goal shielding, and prevention versus promotion focus. This discussion is contrasted with the understanding that currently exists for when consumers learn of their goals from their actions. Furthermore, this article discusses whether customers' actions based on non-conscious goals occur more in familiar rather than unfamiliar situations; with simple rather than complex behaviors; with difficult, negative choices rather than with simpler or positive choices; or with goals that go against a social norm and so need to be suppressed, rather than socially acceptable goals.
This chapter briefly revisits the earlier literature on organizational culture and culture management. The authors critically assess the current interest in culture’s offsprings in organizational research as well as a foundation for offering an alternative. They claim that the zeal for providing layered interpretation and thick description typical of the original approach deserves to be revitalized in contemporary accounts of, and approaches to, cultural life in organizing. The movement in academic interest in culture and culture management from substance to image, from taken-for-granted beliefs to tools, deserves critical scrutiny. Rather than scratching the surfaces of public culture and actors’ strategies of self-presentation, it is suggested that organizational research needs to focus on critically examining outward appearances, puncturing its myths by demasking its symbolic and staged qualities, and probing into the not-readily observable, the silent and silenced, backstage and off-stage worlds in the organizational dungeons