This article discusses borrowing—mainly lexical borrowing—in relation to Arabic. It first provides a brief introduction to early loans in Arabic. Then it considers borrowing in written Arabic, before dealing with borrowing in spoken Arabic. The literature on this subject is vast, corresponding to the large geographical area and many languages involved in contact with Arabic. The article therefore offers typologies of the linguistic processes by which the borrowing out of and into Arabic can be understood without claiming comprehensiveness.
Abdelali Bentahila, Eirlys Davies, and Jonathan Owens
Bilingual speech involving Arabic has been an important source of linguistic research on the language. The greater part of this research has involved Arabic in contact with other languages; in recent years, greater systematic attention has been given to Arabic diglossic speech as well. This article looks at Arabic in contact with other languages and also deals with diglossic speech. It also briefly summarizes the use of secret languages, which has close structural parallels to code switching.
Ana Deumert and Rajend Mesthrie
This article explores language contact in the African area, with particular focus on Southern Africa. It first looks at the formal features of English in Africa that show the complexities of contact and provide some challenges to mainstream assumptions of historical linguistics. It examines three aspects of English in Africa: the variability and often unorthodox nature of the early input varieties, the nature of language inculcation via classrooms, and the internal dialectology of second language varieties of English in Africa. It then adopts a broad ecological perspective and reflects on the fact that language contact gives rise to new varieties of English as well as new varieties of African languages. The focus of the discussion is on language change due to two main factors (a) rural-urban as well as cross-border migration, and (b) new media. While the former supported complex forms of language contact, including the emergence of new varieties characterized by intensive code-switching and code-mixing; the latter led to the development of new ways of writing both English and African languages.
Lisa Lim and Umberto Ansaldo
A consideration of the Asian region in the history of English must view the element of contact in multilingual contexts as probably the most significant phenomenon affecting the development of English. Several critical factors of contact prompting rethinking what “the English language” has become are discussed, viz. changes in different eras in the sociopolitical contexts, the diversity of vernaculars in Asia that have come into contact with English, the range of input varieties, and the general context of multilingualism. Linguistic features which are shared across a number of Asian languages and which look set to continue their influence on English are highlighted: zero copula, predicative adjectives and topic prominence, discourse particles, and tone. Finally, two contemporary and significant trends in Asia – the rapid spread of English in noncolonial Asian countries, and globalization phenomena such as electronic media, global music, and call centre outsourcing – are also noted for their contribution to contact dynamics and their subsequent impact on the continuing development of English.
Throughout its history, Iran has been a richly multilingual nation, with documented evidence reaching back nearly three millennia. Today, estimates of the number of languages spoken in modern Iran vary, with numbers ranging from fifty-four to seventy-six living languages. This chapter presents a general description of societal bilingualism, how bilingual communities come about, the relationship between language and identity in multilingual contexts, and how best to describe the kind(s) of bilingualism found in Iran, including the use of English. The chapter then turns to bilingualism in Iran from a historical perspective, with the goal of understanding why there are so many languages in present-day Iran. Finally, it addresses the status of English in pre- and post-revolutionary Iran and issues of language maintenance.
Mauro Tosco and Stefano Manfredi
This article focuses on the languages derived from the drastic restructuring of Arabic. It first distinguishes between Arabic-based Pidgins and Creoles and peripheral Arabic dialects and Arabic spoken as a non–first language as an interethnic medium. The discussion then turns to the general features of Arabic-based Pidgins and Creoles, Sudanic Pidgins and Creoles, immigrant Pidgins in Arab countries, and the relevance of Arabic-based Pidgins and Creoles for Arabic linguistics and general Creolistics.
This chapter provides an areal profile of Englishes in Southeast Asia (SEA), focusing on the three core Outer Circle varieties, namely Singapore English, Malaysian English, and Philippine English, outlining the historical and sociolinguistic contexts for their evolution, and highlighting substrate influence in the contact dynamics of their multilingual ecologies. Common features of phonology and grammar, and particles and mixed codes are illustrated. The article also goes beyond the three core SEA Englishes to consider (i) the situations of the other SEA countries, considered in the Expanding Circle, but where English is spreading more widely and swiftly than before; (ii) the feature of tone, so far only documented in SgE, but, given SEA’s tone-language ecologies, with the potential of becoming a feature characteristic of the region; and (iii) current social and economic developments in SEA which have implications for the social fabric, the ecology, and the evolving varieties of English.