Thomas N. Gladwin
This article addresses whether market-based capitalism might chiefly be responsible for the global environment crisis and the dominant “dark” forces resisting solutions to this crisis. The emphasis is particularly on the Anglo-Saxon form of capitalism. It also addresses six contentions as to why capitalism might represent the ultimate cause of ecological destruction and resistance to change on behalf of a sustainable future. Corporations, and the people within them, are following a system of logic that leads inexorably toward dominant behaviors. The business and the natural environment (B&NE) field needs to become proficient at analyzing the impacts of business. The field must also present judgments of what is right versus wrong and good versus evil. It must also assign duties and moral obligations, demand sacrifices, and normatively focus on what should be.
Robert Chia and Ajit Nayak
This chapter argues that paradox arises, not from our phenomenal experience, but from our efforts at conceptualizing it through the logic of comprehension dominating Western thought. It identifies an Aristotelian-inspired “Being” ontology and a corresponding representationalist epistemology as the primary underlying cause of paradox in truth claims made on empirical observations. Drawing on a Heraclitean-inspired tradition in the West, this chapter shows how paradox may be circumnavigated through an alternative logic of Otherness. Underlying this metaphysical outlook is an ontology of Becoming, which takes flux and change as pervasive and inexorable. Language and logic are thus seen as futile attempts to fix the unfixable. Embracing a Becoming world view of reality enables us to recognize the limits of logic and representation and hence develop more nuanced and oblique modes of communication and responses. A Becoming world view sensitizes us to a necessary Otherness always already immanent in representational truth claims.
Lisa L. Shu and Max H. Bazerman
This article investigates interventions at the micro level—the level of the individual—from both the citizen and policymaker perspectives. It concentrates on recognized cognitive barriers from the behavioral decision-making literature. It specifically highlights three cognitive barriers that impede sound individual decision-making that have particular relevance to behaviors impacting the environment. Then, it describes possible ways to overcome these cognitive barriers, first from the perspective of the individual citizen and then from the perspective of the policymaker. Over-discounting the future can contribute to a broad array of environmental problems. The three biases—positive illusions, egocentrism, and the tendency to discount the future—can have an interactive effect. They are innate and pervasive roadblocks that prevent individuals from adopting energy-efficient behaviors and technologies. It is noted that strategies are necessary to help policymakers overcome their loss aversion. Finally, the remaining questions on the research frontier are presented.
Howard Gospel and Andrew Pendleton
This article examines the role and extent of employee participation in the main areas of corporate governance. It becomes apparent that there are considerable differences between countries in governance institutions and practices. Many of these differences hinge on the role of employees in the governance process. The article provides an overview of the main practitioner and academic perspectives on governance, highlighting differences in the role accorded to employees. It outlines the broad national and comparative perspectives to provide some context for the subsequent discussion of more specific aspects of employee involvement. The article also identifies the main elements of corporate governance systems: the involvement of owners, the role of governing boards, information flows and transparency, the remuneration of managers, and the market for corporate control. All these are addressed with reference to the actual and potential participation of employees. In the last section, some broad conclusions are drawn.
Subhabrata Bobby Banerjee
This article discusses some critical perspectives on business and the natural environment (B&NE). It introduces critical management studies (CMS) and the intellectual and philosophical traditions that inform this field. Issues of power and domination are addressed in CMS. It then reviews a critical research agenda for the study of B&NE. Particular constructions of the “environment” and “nature” emerge when environmental issues are framed from the conventional economic paradigm. There is a danger that CMS can become an insular sub-discipline in organization and management studies. Pollution prevention and product stewardship may be the “win-win” environmental strategic capabilities that firms can develop, but it is doubtful if these strategies can address the broader goals of economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It finally covers five themes for future B&NE research that depart from the mainstream: paradigmatic research, empirical research, critical political economic approach, global environmental governance, and critical engagement.
Bruce E. Kaufman and Daphne G. Taras
The distinctive approach considered in this article is indirect participation through forms of non-union employee representation (NER). NER has been practiced in industry for more than a century, with considerable diversity and variation both across countries and over time. This article defines NER and provides a thumbnail sketch of its historical evolution. It describes the various forms of NER and its alternative functions. The article then synthesizes these diverse forms and functions into four distinct models/strategies of NER (called the ‘four faces’ of NER). Furthermore, it provides a brief overview of theorizing on NER. The article surveys the recent empirical literature on NER, with an emphasis on evidence regarding NER's performance and strengths and weaknesses. It ends with a brief recapitulation of the main theme; that is, that NER exhibits great diversity in form, purpose, and outcome, and that sweeping generalizations are therefore hazardous.
Paul J. Gollan
Non-union collective voice (NCV) has tended to play a minimal role in many Anglo industrial relations systems, with few formal processes or legal requirements. However, the lack of representative structures covering increasing numbers of non-union employees due to declining levels of trade union density and legislative changes banning closed shop or compulsory union arrangements have prompted the current interest in NCV arrangements. This article explores management strategies towards, and the development of, NCV arrangements and union responses to such arrangements in predominately English-speaking countries. It also tracks the development of dual-channel NCV and union voice arrangements, and examines the interplay between channels of NCV and trade unions. Overall, the article reviews this theory and raises debates around management strategies and issues involved in the process of transition from NCV to unionism.
This article presents some observations about repositioning the research on enterprise sustainability in a new direction. In addition to its past focus on external spaces, it also suggests focusing on internal spaces of the human mind and emotions. Sustainability 2.0 is concerned with developing an emotional and passionate relationship to nature, as a prelude to making “improvements” to it. Social and emotional engagements with sustainability are complementary to each other. Enterprise Sustainability 2.0 evokes a sustainable organizational aesthetic. Art offers an antidote to the mental and emotional pollution of commercialism, which eventually lead to the toxification of air, land, water, and the excessive consumption of carbon. Sustainability 2.0 is an invitation to look at the less examined but essential emotional and embodied aspects of sustaining humans on Earth. Arts as a repository of emotions can serve as a vehicle for infusing passion for sustainability into enterprises.
Linda L. Putnam and Karen Lee Ashcraft
This chapter contrasts the modernist and postmodernist approaches to gender and organizational paradox, contradictions, and dialectics. Modernist scholarship highlights identity, visibility, and meritocracy paradoxes that treat gender as a dualism linked to double binds and inequality. Postmodern feminist research focuses on the doing or performing of gender that casts paradox as an opportunity to negotiate new identities and organizational forms. In this view, paradoxical tensions that stem from performing gender and diversity often lead to ambiguity, ambivalence, and dissonance that can create spaces for actions. The contrast of the two approaches shows how organizational paradox is not only indispensable to the product ion of gender and power but also to the ontology of organizations.
This article builds on organizational and institutional approaches to inequality that highlight the substantial degree of variation in inequality across jobs, occupations, industries, firms, regions, and countries that cannot be attributed to human capital differences alone. It begins with a theoretical review of organizational and institutional theories of gender and racial inequality, follows with a brief description of the new context of economic restructuring, and then focuses on the gendered and racialized aspects of economic restructuring and organization-level restructuring. It also examines the institutional differences across advanced industrial countries that have mediated the terms of women's economic incorporation during this period. While much of the existing empirical and theoretical literature, this article discusses draws on the United States. Given existing strengths and weaknesses of the literature, the primary focus of this article is on gender, and it examines race as it intersects with gender.
Health care organizations are under increasing pressure to account for their performance to outside constituencies. This chapter reviews the background, nature, and consequences of organized efforts to enhance transparency in health care. Market reforms and quality concerns create mounting demands for public transparency, but health care quality is difficult to assess in a way that is both fair and accessible to a general audience. Public quality reporting has not been shown to improve quality of care, and there is a risk that it produces nominal rather than effective transparency. Especially when combined with economic incentives, transparency regimes tend to breed gaming, which is repeatedly ignored by systems designers. Health professionals typically react negatively, even if they also participate in and derive some benefits from transparency efforts. Future research needs to explore systematically the strategies that professionals, patients, and organizations engage in when creating and receiving public quality information.
Michael Lounsbury, Samantha Fairclough, and Min‐Dong Paul Lee
This article emphasizes the neoinstitutional theory in organizational analysis. It evaluates the gaps and opportunities for the study of institutional dynamics at the interface of business and the environment. Institutional theoretic approaches address the sources and consequences of institutions, and can be harnessed for both normative and positive approaches. Moreover, it briefly covers the works that focus on regulatory, normative, and cognitive institutional forces within this school of thought. The subject matter of organizations and the natural environment inherently lends itself to institutional analysis. The four main research foci that attracted concentrated attention from organizational scholars is considered: how corporations respond to environmental problems, the organizational dimensions of the environmental movement, environmental justice, and sustainability. Furthermore, the article reports the opportunities to expand the scope of research on institutional dynamics by addressing greenwashing, climate change, movements and counter-movements, and policy.
Trish Reay, Elizabeth Goodrick, and Bob Hinings
Health care systems are both highly institutionalized and highly professionalized. We suggest that both characteristics should be considered to understand the underlying power dynamics and how organizational change can occur. Although these characteristics have mostly been considered separately, we identify three ways they are being brought together and show how each reveals different underlying power dynamics that in turn suggest different explanations of organizational change. To conclude, we set out three avenues for future research that will continue to advance our knowledge of change in health care.
Wealth and inequality are among the key macro-level outcomes studied by social scientists. They are of considerable interest not only to researchers, but also to citizens and policymakers. This article reviews and assesses theories and empirical findings on the impact of institutions on national wealth and inequality. It focuses on macro-comparative research on affluent countries. National wealth is typically measured as gross domestic product per capita. Prior to the 1970s, thinking about the determinants of national wealth was dominated by the approach used by mainstream economists. That approach focuses on capital, labour, and technology, and it assumes that poorer countries catch up with richer ones via factor equalization. In the 1950s and 1960s, patterns among the world's richest countries seemed to more or less conform to this expectation. But in the 1970s, a number of these countries experienced sharp economic downturns.
Intergenerational Beneficence and the Success of Environmental Sustainability Initiatives in Organizational Contexts
Leigh Plunkett Tost and Kimberly A. Wade‐Benzoni
This article explores how individuals psychologically experience dilemmas in which they face a tradeoff between their own self-interests in the present and the interests of future others. The psychological dynamics that impact individuals' inclinations to sacrifice their present self-interest to protect or promote the interests of future others is investigated. It also discusses the implications of this research for how organizations can promote environmental sustainability. It then evaluates how the independent effects of interpersonal and intertemporal distances in intergenerational contexts can combine to diminish intergenerational beneficence, and thus lead to intergenerational discounting. Intergenerational discounting represents a combined effect of intertemporal and social discounting and its consequences can escalate over time. The legacy motive is closely tied to the concept of generativity. Intergenerational decisions have considerable impact within organizations and society. The study of intergenerational decision-making presents critical insight into the ways that organizations achieve long-term environmental sustainability and viability.
The labor market has traditionally been viewed through a narrow lens, trained directly on the market for wage labor and on the management of employment within well-bounded organizations. This narrow lens was possible in the era of the industrial model of employment relations. This article explores the nature of change in labor markets and the rise of so-called flexible labor markets. The key elements of the employment system are taken to be: employing organizations and the associated pattern of work organization and pay; the structure of labor supply; and the form of employment relationships and contracts. This article addresses empirical evidence in support of this characterization. Its main objective is to explore the debates about how these changes are to be interpreted, particularly with respect to the now ubiquitous concept of flexibility, and to identify how change in one element is related to or reflective of changes in other dimensions.
This article provides a multilayered theorization of labour unionism's relationship to participation in order to provide the basis for examining unions' experience of, and response to, participation. This requires an exposition of the broad parameters of the relationship between labour unionism and participation before examining the conceptual implications of these parameters. In doing so, participation is defined broadly as the reality, rhetoric, and aspiration of worker involvement in task determination as well as contributing to higher-level, decision-making processes concerning the employment relationship, enterprise, and markets, whether coming from workers, employers, or states. This then concerns, with varying degrees of depth and breadth, direct and indirect participation at different levels of employing organizations and over an array of subjects. In essence, the focus of the article is on bilateral arenas of engagement between workers and employer representatives that are not formally and conceptually predicated on the involvement of any third parties.
Timothy Clark, Pojanath Bhatanacharoen, and David Greatbatch
This article identifies the (dis)similarities between the conventional corporate consultants and management gurus as celebrity consultants. It first studies the nature of management gurus as celebrity consultants, where it lists three different aspects of their roles, namely as accomplished orators, supporters of management fashion, and authors of bestselling books. It then discusses in detail the features of these three types of management gurus. This article also tries to determine if there are any gaps in the existing literature on gurus.
Violina Rindova and Santosh Srinivas
Management of meaning, an activity central to mobilizing action both inside and outside organizations, has been studied in the analyses of organizational culture, identity, change, innovation, stakeholder management, and environmental enactment. This review of the conceptual and empirical work in these areas suggests that although meaning-making involves managing symbols, it is not concerned only with symbolic actions and their consequences. Meaning-making is central to the generation of substantive actions that affect organizations and their strategies in fundamental ways. Greater research attention to the importance of meaning management as a managerial and organizational capability, and the links between organizational cultures as systems of beliefs, and the societal culture as a toolkit, is recommended.
All forms of organization are forms of organization of social relations. All social relations involve power relations. Power is evident in these relations as relations not only of ownership and control but also of structuration and design. These relations may take many forms. They may be embodied as financial capital, intellectual capital, or social capital, for instance. Such relations are likely to be both differentially distributed and socially constructed as well as existing in differential demand in differentiated markets. Power is also evident in the various forms of knowledge that constitute, structure, and shape these markets and organizations. It is these power/knowledge relations that this article addresses. The aim of this article is to address analytically the methods of managing and organizing, which members of various organizational bodies and communities find conventional to use.