This chapter examines the transformative effect of the Internet and the rise of computer technology on international organization of communications. It begins by describing the liberalization of telecommunication services, which provides the essential point of departure for understanding the contemporary situation. It then identifies key international organizations involved in Internet governance. This survey of organizations is heavily biased towards entities that are involved in Internet operations and governance. The next section puts this collection of organizations into motion by describing their power struggles over the control of the Internet. Along the way, the chapter invokes several theories of organization, such as regime theory, principal-agent concepts of delegation, and theories of networked governance derived from transaction cost theory.
Kenneth Anderson and Matthew C. Waxman
An international public debate over the law and ethics of autonomous weapon systems (AWS) has been underway since 2012, with those urging legal regulation of AWS under existing principles and requirements of the international law of armed conflict in argument with opponents who favour, instead, a preemptive international treaty ban on all such weapons. This chapter provides an introduction to this international debate, offering the main arguments on each side. These include disputes over defining an AWS, the morality and law of automated targeting and target selection by machine, and the interaction of humans and machines in the context of lethal weapons of war. Although the chapter concludes that a categorical ban on AWS is unjustified morally and legally—favouring the law of armed conflict’s existing case-by-case legal evaluation—it offers an exposition of arguments on each side of the AWS issue.
With regards to global trade, where new technologies impact both on what is traded and how, this chapter sketches the current regulatory landscape and projects the implications of emerging technologies for future regulatory approaches. While the regulation of technology mainly rests with domestic law, it is international trade law that addresses problems of regulatory diversity, overcomes unnecessary barriers to international trade and investment, and articulates common standards. Apart from general principles of non-discrimination and transparency, technology is particularly addressed by rules of intellectual property protection and by technical regulations and standards for industrial and nutritional products. For international trade law to respond to the challenges of legitimacy and democratic accountability, there need to be new approaches to regulatory cooperation and coherence, operating within a proper framework of multi-level governance that harnesses the process of globalization which is much driven by technological advances.