This article investigates English in Ireland in order to identify the factors involved in the relationship between language and social change, based on the idea that a linguistic change is a social change and social change is always embedded in language. This unique example of linguistic and social change has been shaped by colonialism and the responses to it. Nevertheless, a discussion of the Irish case will allow for an assessment of the complexity of the linguistic situation in Ireland, as well as the identification of factors which may have a key role in other cases of linguistic change such as legal prescription and proscription, economics and cultural hegemony. The article examines Irish polyglossia, the Gaelicization of the invaders and the eclipse of the English language between 1200 and 1537, and policy and practice with respect to Anglicization in 1537–1800. It also looks at the demise of the Irish language and the consolidation, spread, and hegemony of English between 1800 and 1922.
This chapter presents an overview of the work that could be characterized as the functional-cognitive paradigm in linguistics. Separate sections are dedicated to functionally oriented theories on the one hand, and cognitively oriented theories on the other hand. The former type focuses on the use of language as the ultimate factor that defines its shape. The latter type starts out from the assumption that the human language should be understood from the perspective of human cognition in general. From both areas, three theories are discussed in somewhat more detail: SFG, FG, and RRG from the functional, and CC, CG, and RCG from the cognitive persuasion. A comparison is made between the respective theories in each of the two categories, in terms of their strengths and weaknesses. It is argued that, although there are apparent differences between the two approaches to grammar, there seems to be no fundamental reason why they could not be merged into one encompassing paradigm.
This chapter provides an historic overview of language, mind, and brain. After brief remarks on the mind and the body, the links between language and the mind, and language and the brain are considered. Although there has long been an interest in language and mind, the systematic scientific investigation of the relation between them began only with the establishment of psychology laboratories, and the sub-discipline psycholinguistics, in the 1870s, with its three main sub-branches: acquisition, comprehension, and production. Modern interest in language and the brain begins with Gall, and blossomed in the nineteenth century with the study of aphasic patients. In the last fifty years, new behavioral and neuroscientific techniques provide new ways of addressing questions about language and brain. In a parallel development – embodied cognition – interest has broadened from the brain to the (rest of the) body, and its role in language use.