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Attitudes, prescriptivism, and standardization  

Carol Percy

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The prescriptive dictum that some linguistic variants are superior to others has strong roots in the eighteenth-century grammatical tradition. Synthesizing contemporary research on ... More

Changes in politeness cultures  

Andreas H. Jucker

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The 1970s and 1980s saw the emergence of more systematic research on politeness, led by the pioneering studies of Geoffrey N. Leech (1983) and Penelope Brown and Stephen C. Levinson ... More

Changing attitudes and political correctness  

Geoffrey Hughes

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Political correctness creates new social agendas and areas of conformity by introducing new terms, redefining established words, and suppressing taboo terms and behaviors, all within a ... More

Code-switching in English of the Middle Ages  

Päivi Pahta

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Throughout its history, English has had extensive contact with other languages, and the impact of these various contacts on the lexicon is a popular topic among researchers of the history ... More

Collocations in grammaticalization and variation  

Rena Torres Cacoullos and James A. Walker

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article compares collocations in grammaticalisation and linguistic variation. It shows how patterns of distribution and co-occurrence can be used to demonstrate the variability and ... More

The commodification of language: English as a global commodity  

Deborah Cameron

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
When languages are called “commodities,” it suggests the existence of a market or markets in which languages and language varieties, like other tradable commodities, have an economic ... More

The competing demands of popularization vs. economy: Written language in the age of mass literacy  

Douglas Biber and Bethany Gray

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Two apparently contradictory developments have been associated with the history of the English language over the past 200 years: the increasing use of colloquial linguistic forms ... More

Democratization  

Michael Farrelly and Elena Seoane

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses the “democratization” of discourse in the history of the English language. An important aspect of rethinking the study of the history of English, in terms of ... More

Ethnic dialects in North American English  

Charles Boberg

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
A well-known principle of sociolinguistics is that languages reflect the people who speak them: social divisions result in associated differences in linguistic behavior. One of the main ... More

Exploring variation and change in New Englishes: Looking into the International Corpus of English (ICE) and beyond  

Joybrato Mukherjee and Marco Schilk

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The term “New Englishes” refers to varieties of the English language that have emerged in former British colonies (or, in the case of the Philippines, of the United States). During the ... More

Forms of early mass communication: The religious domain  

Tanja Rütten

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
“Early mass communication” is generally believed to be a phenomenon of the Early Modern period. In the religious domain, the kind of mass communication found in pamphlets and newspapers ... More

From opportunistic to systematic use of the Web as corpus: Do-support with got (to) in contemporary American English  

Christian Mair

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The chapter argues that the best way to profit from the rich corpus-linguistic working environment available to the student of the history of English is to use traditional (and sometimes ... More

GOAT vowel variants in the Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English (DECTE)  

Karen P. Corrigan

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English (DECTE) is the product of two earlier corpora: the Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English (NECTE) and a monitor sub-corpus, ... More

Grammaticalization and conversation  

Elizabeth Couper‐Kuhlen

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article analyses the relation between conversation and grammaticalisation. It argues that what is on one occasion accomplished via a succession of actions can, on other occasions, be ... More

Grammaticalization and linguistic Variation  

Shana Poplack

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article examines the similarities and differences between grammaticalisation theory and variation theory (VT). It describes the variationist take on grammaticalisation and outlines ... More

Grammaticalization and sociolinguistics  

Terttu Nevalainen and Minna Palander‐Collin

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article examines the diffusion of grammaticalisation processes of varying time depths and complexity across language communities. It argues that a process of grammaticalisation need ... More

Grammaticalization in non‐standard varieties of English  

Bernd Kortmann and Agnes Schneider

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article deals with grammaticalisation phenomena in non-standard varieties of the English language which are not found in spontaneous spoken varieties of Standard English. It aims to ... More

The history of English seen as the history of ideas: Cultural change reflected in different translations of the New Testament  

Anna Wierzbicka

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Research on the history of English has often been undertaken in a somewhat atomistic spirit, with an emphasis on particular areas of phonology, morphology, syntax, and (to a far lesser ... More

The impact of electronically-mediated communication on language standards and style  

Naomi S. Baron

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Over the past five decades, the English language has undergone a stylistic shift, becoming increasingly informal. This informality is reflected in both speech and writing, and writing ... More

Language, Culture, and Society  

Ana Deumert

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Jul 2013
This chapter provides an overview of the genesis and theoretical development of sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology. For the nineteenth century, the focus is on Humboldt, Whitney, ... More

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