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The Agrarian East  

Edgar Melton

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter deals with the vast territories east of the Elbe river, including Poland–Lithuania, the Czech lands, Brandenburg–Prussia, and Russia. There are two primary and interlocking ... More

The Agrarian West  

Tom Scott

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
The main developments in western European agrarian society and economy are surveyed at the outset in a regional analysis which stresses the degree of variety within quite small areas and ... More

Art and Architecture  

T. K. Rabb

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter traces the revolution in style and taste that swept over the visual arts as a result of the movement we call the Renaissance. Not only was there a transformation in subject ... More

Asian Connections and Chinese Comparisons: The Unconquered East  

R. Bin Wong

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2015
Many of early modern Europe’s connections to Asia were commercial in nature, in contrast to the colonial relations forged by Europeans in the Americas. This chapter considers the ways in ... More

Authority and Popular Resistance  

Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Dec 2014
Divisions between Marxist and non-Marxist historians have fuelled debate of late medieval and early modern popular protest over the past fifty years. Yet, an underlying consensus has ... More

Belief and its Limits  

Mack P. Holt

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
‘Belief and its Limits’ outlines five major themes: (1) the transformation started by the Protestant and Catholic reformations of the sixteenth century that refashioned the way most people ... More

The Bohemian Reformations  

Howard Louthan

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Jan 2016
The article examines religious changes in Bohemia and Moravia from the age of Emperor Charles IV (1346–1378) through the first half of the seventeenth century. It begins by considering the ... More

The Cartographic Emergence of Europe?  

Valerie A. Kivelson

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Like any human construct, Europe had to be imagined into being. It emerged gradually as an idea, a place, a people, and a culture, from its first appearance in ancient texts through its ... More

The Christian Church, 13701550  

David J. Collins S.J.

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
This chapter reviews major themes in the history of Western Christianity from the onset of the Western Schism (1378) to the opening of the Council of Trent (1345). Topics include late ... More

Colonial Societies  

Gabriel Paquette

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
This chapter traces the development of European colonial societies in the extra-European world c. 1500–1800, chiefly in the Americas. It examines the factors affecting the growth and ... More

Comparisons and Consequences in Global Perspective, 1500–1750  

Merry Wiesner-Hanks

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2015
This chapter places the Protestant Reformation in a global perspective in two ways, using methods and examining themes common in world history as a field. First, it compares the ... More

Consumption and Material Life  

Janine Maegraith and Craig Muldrew

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
This chapter provides both a survey and a critical interpretation of the growing literature on material culture and consumption in early modern Europe, focusing on the experience of Italy, ... More

Country and Town in Mediterranean Europe  

James S. Amelang

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Town and country were closely linked in early modern Europe. While cities normally held the dominant hand in political and jurisdictional terms, their dependence on their hinterlands for ... More

Cultures of Peoples  

Caroline Castiglione

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Dec 2014
The popular culture of early modern Europe is best conceptualized as ‘the cultures of peoples’ because of the continent’s diversity. Historians of popular culture have explored the ... More

Disease and Medicine  

Mary Lindemann

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
This chapter surveys the history of medicine and health from the middle of the fourteenth century through the mid-eighteenth century. It discusses major points in that history: diseases ... More

Early Modern Catholicism  

Nicholas Terpstra

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
When seeking to capture how religion shapes lay people’s expectations, a focus on formal theology and on ecclesiastical structures can leave much unexplained. Three concepts animated ... More

Economic and Social Trends  

Regina Grafe

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter traces major trends in economic and social history during recent decades. Grand narratives of a transition from feudalism to capitalism that described early modern societies ... More

Education in the Reformation  

Charlotte Methuen

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2015
What did Protestants need to know, and how were they given access to this knowledge? This chapter explores the spread of university and school education in Protestant areas during the ... More

The Emergence of Diplomacy  

Paul Dover and Hamish Scott

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter charts the emergence of diplomacy in its modern sense—the peaceful and continuous management of relations between states—during the early modern centuries. It was brought ... More

Europe’s Enlightenment  

John Robertson

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter begins by outlining the ways in which ‘Enlightenment’ has been constructed, by contemporaries, philosophers, and historians. Historical study of Enlightenment only began in ... More

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