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1989  

Matthias Middell

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The essay argues that the story of 1989 can be told either as a narrow or a wide story. The narrow story focuses on the end of communism, the unification of Germany, and the subsequent ... More

Africa  

Elizabeth Schmidt

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the impact of the Cold War on Africa. It explains that while Africa is the least-known Cold War battleground, the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and Cuba ... More

After the Fear was Over? What Came After Dictatorships in Spain, Greece, and Portugal  

Helen Graham and Alejandro Quiroga

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
What Spain, Greece, and Portugal have in common in the twentieth century is the manner in which their internal processes of change – rural to urban, agrarian to industrial – were ... More

Brothers, Strangers and Enemies: Ethno-Nationalism and the Demise of Communist Yugoslavia  

Cathie Carmichael

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
In the forty-five years after World War II that Communist Yugoslavia existed, judgements as to the success of the experiment differed widely. Unlike the first royalist Yugoslav state, ... More

The Cold War in Southeast Asia  

Ang Cheng Guan

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the history of the Cold War in Southeast Asia. It explains that the onset of the Cold War coincided with nationalist struggles and decolonization, and explains why ... More

Cold War Strategies/Power and Culture—East: Sources of Soviet Conduct Reconsidered  

Vladislav Zubok

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the root motives behind the Soviet struggle against the West and the paradigm of Soviet international behavior related to the Cold War. It suggests that ... More

A Continent Bristling With Arms: Continuity and Change In Western European Security Policies After the Second World War  

Leopoldo Nuti

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Since the end of World War II, Europe has known an unprecedented period of peace that has profoundly altered the political landscape of the continent. Yet at the same time, for much of the ... More

East, West, and the Return of ‘Central’: Borders Drawn and Redrawn  

Catherine Lee and Robert Bideleux

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Western Europe has not only met but also married Eastern Europe, even if there are rumours that it was a marriage of convenience, consummated in ‘EU Europe’. Nevertheless, a significant ... More

Europe's Cold War  

Jussi M. Hanhimäki

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
In 1945, much of Europe was in rubble, following an orgy of violence and genocide unprecedented in recorded history. This alone provides one explanation for the phenomenal rise of Soviet ... More

European Integration: The Rescue of the Nation State?  

Robert Bideleux

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Rejecting claims that European integration has been inimical or antithetical to nations, states, and ‘national’ interests, Alan Milward's The European Rescue of the Nation-State (1992) ... More

‘Gentlemen, you are Mad!’: Mutual Assured Destruction and Cold War Culture  

Ivan T. Berend

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
In the year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the historian and critic Lewis Mumford made a dramatic attack on the insanity of the nuclear age. In his article entitled ... More

Japan and the Cold War: An Overview  

Antony Best

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter, which examines the impact of the Cold War on Japan, investigates why Japan consistently allied itself to the West rather than the East and why it adopted a low-security ... More

Latin America  

Lars Schoultz

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the role of Latin America in the Cold War. It explains that Latin America did not play a significant independent role in the Cold War and largely served as a symbol ... More

Making Postwar Communism  

Mark Pittaway

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The Soviet Union's victory in World War II offered both Moscow and Communists in Europe the opportunity to break out of the isolation that had afflicted them during the interwar years. ... More

The Military  

David R. Stone

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the military history of the Cold War. It explains that most military activities during this period were focused on apocalyptic nuclear war which never came and that ... More

Soviet-American Relations Through the Cold War  

Vladimir O. Pechatnov

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter analyzes the dynamics of the United States–Soviet Union relations during the Cold War. It describes the evolution of the “strategic codes” on both sides, and how they ... More

The Truth About Friendship Treaties: Behind The Iron Curtain  

Douglas Selvage

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The basic, legal building blocks for the Soviet sphere of influence during the Cold War were the bilateral ‘Treaties of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance’ between the states ... More

What Comes After Communism?  

Michael Shafir

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Was it communism or socialism that succumbed in 1989? Was communism dead in 1989, when the ‘Sinatra Doctrine’ (‘each does it his own way’) replaced the Brezhnev Doctrine in East Central ... More

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