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Arms Trafficking  

Andrew Feinstein and Paul Holden

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This essay provides a brief overview of arms trafficking, its participants and enabling partners, and the prospects of a reduction in arms trafficking through various legal mechanisms. It ... More

A Brief History of the Underworld and Organized Crime, c. 1750–1950  

Heather Shore

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2016
This chapter explores the evolution of concepts and definitions relating to criminal organization since 1750. Terms such as the “underworld,” “organized crime,” and “professional crime” ... More

Chinese Organized Crime  

Ko-lin Chin

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
The author draws on findings from several empirical research projects in this essay, which presents an overview of the traditional Chinese organized crime groups and the newly established ... More

CyberCrime  

Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo and Peter Grabosky

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
This essay considers how information and communications technologies (ICT) are used by organized crime groups. Three categories of groups are identified: traditional organized criminal ... More

Drug Markets and Organized Crime  

Peter Reuter

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This essay examines the variation in relationships between drug market enterprises and organized crime across different levels of the market, countries, and drugs (cocaine, heroin, ... More

European Union Organized Crime Control Policies  

Cyrille Fijnaut

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
The European Union’s policy on organized crime evolved over the years from a vague unease about this problem around 1990 into a rather comprehensive and coherent set of strategies and ... More

The Fight Against the Italian Mafia  

Antonio La Spina

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Cosa Nostra, the ˜Ndrangheta, and the Camorra have their headquarters in Italy. In the past 30 years, Italian policies against the Mafia have developed steadily and are now deemed a best ... More

Finance-Oriented Strategies of Organized Crime Control  

Michael Kilchling

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The essay provides an analysis of financial strategies of organized crime control, including their development from a traditional, vaguely moral concept (“crime should not pay”) to a ... More

Gangs Another Form of Organized Crime?  

Scott H. Decker and David Pyrooz

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
This essay places gangs in the broader context of organized criminal groups, including transnational organized crime, drug smuggling networks, human trafficking operations, and terrorist ... More

How to Research Organized Crime  

Dick Hobbs and Georgios A. Antonopoulos

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Despite the challenges, the study of organized crime has developed rapidly in the past 20 years in both quantitative and qualitative terms. The purpose of this essay is to provide an ... More

Human Smuggling, Human Trafficking, and Exploitation in the Sex Industry  

Edward R. Kleemans and Monika Smit

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
This essay discusses several topics related to human smuggling and human trafficking with a special focus on exploitation in the sex industry. Human smuggling and human trafficking are ... More

Identity Theft  

Heith Copes and Lynne Vieraitis

Print publication date:
Aug 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article provides an overview about identity theft. It elaborates the uncertainty and difficulties in defining the crime. It describes patterns and incidences of identity theft and ... More

Identity Theft  

Lynne Vieraitis and Amny Shuraydi

Often cited as one of the fastest-growing crimes in the United States and abroad, identity theft continues to be of great concern to the public. It is a crime that is difficult to control ... More

The Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources  

Tim Boekhout van Solinge

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This essay discusses the involvement of organized crime in natural resource exploitation and trade. This is accomplished by examining case studies from different tropical regions in the ... More

Illegal Gambling  

Toine Spapens

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Ever since authorities decided to restrict gambling, criminals have offered the opportunity to play illegally. Since the end of the nineteenth century, illegal gambling also became one of ... More

Introduction  

Letizia Paoli

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Jun 2014
This introduction for the Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime begins with the proposition that there are two main notions and types of organized crime: (a) a set of stable organizations ... More

The Italian Mafia  

Letizia Paoli

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
May 2014
Unlike most other developed countries, Italy hosts a few, large-scale, century-old criminal organizations that not only engage in profit-making criminal activities but also exercise ... More

The Italian-American Mafia  

Jay S. Albanese

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
The Mafia in America became a concern that paralleled the immigration wave from Italy during the late 1800s. It was closely associated with victimization within Italian communities in ... More

The Japanese Yakuza  

Peter Hill

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This essay gives an empirical overview of the main trends in the business activities, organizational structures, and inter- and intragroup relationships of Japanese organized crime ... More

Mexican Drug “Cartels”  

Monica Medel and Francisco Thoumi

Print publication date:
Oct 2014
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
The story of Mexico’s drug trafficking and today’s unprecedented violence cannot be told without mentioning the United States. This essay offers a historical analysis of the emergence, ... More

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