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Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Central Consequences in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus  

Ruili Xie, Tessa-Jonne F. Ropp, Michael R. Kasten, and Paul B. Manis

Hearing loss generally occurs in the auditory periphery but leads to changes in the central auditory system. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affect ... More

Central Nervous System Pain Pathways  

Andrew J. Todd and Fan Wang

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Nociceptive primary afferents detect stimuli that are normally perceived as painful, and these afferents form synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the spinal trigeminal ... More

Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

Alan R. Palmer and Joel I. Berger

The inferior colliculus is an important auditory relay center that undergoes fundamental changes following hearing loss, whether noise induced (NIHL) or age related (ARHL). These changes ... More

Chemosensory Transduction in Arthropods  

Monika Stengl

Reception of chemicals via olfaction and gustation are prerequisites to find, distinguish, and recognize food and mates and to avoid dangers. Several receptor gene superfamilies are ... More

The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei  

Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, and Alberto Recio-Spinoso

Plasticity in neuronal circuits is essential for optimizing connections as animals develop and for adapting to injuries and aging, but it can also distort the processing, as well as ... More

The Cochlear Nucleus as a Generator of Tinnitus-Related Signals  

J.A. Kaltenbach and D.A. Godfrey

Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ear. Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing ... More

Dendritic Targeting and Regulatory RNA Control of Local Neuronal Translation  

Taesun Eom, Ilham A. Muslimov, Anna Iacoangeli, and Henri Tiedge

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
This chapter reviews current developments in the area of translational control in neurons. It focuses on the activity-dependent translational modulation by neuronal regulatory RNAs, ... More

Descending Auditory Pathways and Plasticity  

Brett R. Schofield and Nichole L. Beebe

Descending auditory pathways originate from multiple levels of the auditory system and use a variety of neurotransmitters, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, acetylcholine, and dopamine. ... More

The Diversified Form and Function of Cochlear Afferents  

Paul Albert Fuchs

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Cochlear afferents differ in form and function. The great majority are type I, large diameter, myelinated neurons that contact a single inner hair cell to transmit acoustic information. ... More

Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuron Types and Their Functional Specialization  

Edward C. Emery and Patrik Ernfors

Primary sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) respond and relay sensations that are felt, such as those for touch, pain, temperature, itch, and more. The ability to ... More

Efferent Innervation to the Cochlea  

Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Carolina Wedemeyer, and Mariano N. Di Guilmi

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The auditory system consists of ascending and descending neuronal pathways. The best studied is the ascending pathway, whereby sounds that are transduced in the cochlea into electrical ... More

Environmental Enrichment and Neuronal Plasticity  

Gregory D. Clemenson, Fred H. Gage, and Craig E.L. Stark

This chapter reviews the literature on environmental enrichment and specifically discusses its influence on the hippocampus of the brain. In animal models, the term “environmental ... More

Extraction of Auditory Information by Modulation of Neuronal Ion Channels  

Leonard K. Kaczmarek

All neurons express a subset of over seventy genes encoding potassium channel subunits. These channels have been studied in auditory neurons, particularly in the medial nucleus of the ... More

FMRP and MicroRNAs in Neuronal Protein Synthesis  

Monica C. Lannom and Stephanie Ceman

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
New protein synthesis is critical for learning and memory. The discovery of ribosomes at synapses indicated the potential for local protein synthesis in response to stimulation. miRNAs ... More

GABAA Receptor Physiology and Pharmacology  

Martin Wallner, Anne Kerstin Lindemeyer, and Richard W. Olsen

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and mediate rapid synaptic as well as slow extrasynaptic inhibitory neurotransmission. Structurally, GABAARs ... More

Genetic Analysis of Behavior in Drosophila  

Björn Brembs

The main function of brains is to generate adaptive behavior. Far from being the stereotypical, robot-like insect, the fruit fly Drosophila exhibits astounding flexibility and chooses ... More

Glial Cells in the Auditory Brainstem  

Giedre Milinkeviciute and Karina S. Cramer

The auditory brainstem carries out sound localization functions that require an extraordinary degree of precision. While many of the specializations needed for these functions reside in ... More

In Vitro Studies of Neuromodulation and Plasticity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus  

Laurence O. Trussell

The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), a division of the cochlear nuclear complex, has been the subject of intense interest for its role in auditory processing and hearing disorders. The ... More

Large Conductance Potassium Channels in the Nervous System  

Willy Carrasquel-Ursulaez, Yenisleidy Lorenzo, Felipe Echeverria, and Ramon Latorre

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The Slowpoke (Slo) family of large conductance K+ channels comprises four structurally and functionally related members (Slo1, Slo2.1, Slo2.2, and Slo3). With the exception of Slo3, all ... More

Mechanisms of Axonal Degeneration and Regeneration: Lessons Learned From Invertebrates  

Jiaxing Li and Catherine A. Collins

In the face of acute or chronic axonal damage, neurons and their axons undergo a number of molecular, cellular, and morphological changes. These changes facilitate two types of responses, ... More

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