Although on the periphery of the migrant-receiving world as traditionally conceived, Russia is well entrenched in the global migration crisis. Migration crisis in Russia is largely a political construction, yet it is often framed as any other type of crisis (e.g. terrorism, geopolitical conflict, economic crisis), marked by a perception of existential threat, urgent public pressure, and uncertainty. This discussion of Russian policymakers’ approach shows how routinizing crisis decision making, through repeated reactionary moves that are institutionalized into law, creates continued crisis feedback loops that reinforce short-term policy horizons and fails to address long-standing demographic and labor market problems related to migration.
Joseph M. Whitmeyer
Conceptions of the human individual lie at the heart of all group process theories. Applying evolutionary reasoning—reasoning concerning what predispositions are likely to have evolved—to those conceptions can make the conceptions more accurate and thus improve theories based on them. This chapter discusses exchange processes, identity processes, and status processes. For exchange processes, evolutionary reasoning suggests numerous predispositions that would affect exchange, many to cope with the problem of cheating by others and ourselves. In fact, evolutionary reasoning suggests that concerns with our own identity may exist principally to improve our exchange outcomes. Concerning status processes, evolutionary reasoning suggests that awarding prestige must have evolved in the context of exchange, such that the person receiving prestige also incurs performance obligations. These points and others lead to several suggestions of areas for future research and specific predictions.
Kevin M. Beaver, Eric J. Connolly, Joseph L. Nedelec, and Joseph A. Schwartz
There is a great deal of interest in examining the genetic and environmental architecture to aggression, violence, and antisocial behaviors. This interest has resulted in hundreds of studies being published that estimate genetic and environmental effects on antisocial phenotypes. The results generated from these studies have been remarkably consistent and have contributed greatly to the knowledge base on the etiology of antisocial behavior. This chapter reviews the research on the genetic basis to antisocial phenotypes by presenting the results related to the heritability of antisocial phenotypes. It also discusses some of the molecular genetic association studies as well as genome-wide association studies that focus on the development of antisocial behaviors. In doing so, it also reviews findings related to gene–environment interactions. The chapter concludes by discussing some of the ways in which these findings could be used for intervention and prevention programs.
Olga Kornienko and Douglas A. Granger
A consistent focus of research has been on understanding how social relationships shape the activity of the biological stress response system. Progress has been made in characterizing these dynamics at the level of the individual, but significantly less is known about the role of social networks as a proximal ecology in which the stress response system is activated and contributes to human development. The focus of this chapter is on adolescence—a developmental period in which social relationships with peers represent both sources of social stress and opportunities for social buffering. It is proposed that considering peer social networks in which adolescents are embedded will augment understanding of the social context of psychosocial processes, including social status, rejection, isolation, bullying and victimization, and support, that are related to psychobiology of stress.
Abigail C. Saguy
The past two decades have seen an explosion of research on “fat frames.” Scholars have found that medical researchers and the pharmaceutical industry have dominated such debates, whereas fat rights activists have struggled to get their message out. Media scholars have found that the news media primarily frame fatness as a medical problem and public health crisis that people bring on themselves through poor food choices and physical inactivity. In contrast, the news media rarely discuss fatness as a form of diversity or condemn weight-based discrimination. Research has further shown that the news media emphasize individual blame and responsibility for “overweight” and “obesity.” Finally, experimental research has shown that people who read news media reports on an “obesity epidemic” caused by poor individual choices express more anti-fat prejudice than people who do not read such reports. This chapter examines the methodology and major findings of these strands of research and identifies fertile avenues of future research.
Daniel E. Adkins, Kelli M. Rasmussen, and Anna R. Docherty
It is well established that extreme social adversity can lead to negative health outcomes decades after the resolution of the precipitating environmental insult. Although the underlying mechanisms through which such adversity gets “under the skin” to become biologically embedded have long been considered a black box, recent research has indicated an important mediating role for epigenetic mechanisms—molecular modifications that regulate gene activity without changing the DNA sequence. With technical and scientific developments now enabling genome-wide epigenetic studies in humans, behavioral researchers have an unprecedented opportunity to empirically map the ways in which social dynamics become epigenetically embedded, influencing downstream gene expression, health, and behavior. This chapter examines the current state of social epigenetics research and discusses the opportunities and challenges facing this emerging field.