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Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament  

Gerard J. Norton

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article first gives a schematic outline of the history of the Hebrew text in four stages. It then presents the elements that readers will meet in modern editions of that text. These ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses archaeology's impact on biblical scholarship, especially over the last two centuries. It describes the Christian pilgrims, explorers, travellers, map makers, and ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the contributions of archaeology to biblical scholarship. Biblical scholarship needs the archaeologist as it needs the anthropologist, the epigraphist, the ... More

Augustine and Pelagius on the Epistle to the Romans  

Mark Edwards

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
Perhaps no scriptural passage has divided the church so bitterly, or so often, as the ninth article of the Epistle to the Romans. Predestinarian readings take two forms, one of which ... More

The Construction of Gender in the New Testament  

Colleen M. Conway

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
This chapter begins with a brief overview of the theorists who have shaped gender analytical work on the New Testament, especially the application of gender theory in classical studies. It ... More

Early Christian Apocryphal Literature  

Stephen J. Shoemaker

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The apocryphal literature of early Christianity consists primarily of narrative traditions about the life and teaching of Jesus, his family, and his apostles, as well as letters, ... More

The East (1): Greece and Asia Minor  

Raymond Van Dam

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The apostle Paul was primarily responsible for the initial introduction of Christianity in western, central, and southern Asia Minor and in the Greek peninsula. During the mid-first ... More

The East (2): Egypt and Palestine  

David Brakke

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Few if any regions in which ancient Christianity thrived capture the modern imagination in the same way as Palestine and Egypt, whose famous cities and equally famous desert regions ... More

The East (3): Syria and Mesopotamia  

Lucas Van Rompay

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Syriac Christianity emerged in northern Mesopotamia, an area of encounter between various peoples and civilizations in which Aramean settlement began as early as the end of the second ... More

The Growth of the Apocrypha  

Alison Salvesen

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Both apocryphal and pseudepigraphical works are increasingly studied at an academic level for what they reveal of the religious preoccupations of their writers and the communities that ... More

The Growth of the New Testament  

John M. Court

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article surveys the growth of the New Testament. The story of the movement in the first centuries towards the canon of the New Testament has three particularly significant historical ... More

Jews and Christians  

Andrew S. Jacobs

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
A concise narrative of the split between ancient Judaism and Christianity persists in modern scholarship. This narrative has its roots in a theologically conditioned, supersessionist ... More

The Life and Teaching of Jesus and the Rise of Christianity  

Craig A. Evans

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article reviews studies on the life and teaching of Jesus and the rise of Christianity. The beginning of critical research into the life of Jesus is traditionally traced to the ... More

The Man and the Myth  

Calvin J. Roetzel

Online publication date:
Jan 2017
This essay compares Paul’s human profile with that of the mythic apostle portrayed in both canonical and non-canonical sources. It highlights Paul’s formative years in Tarsus, his urban, ... More

Manichaeism  

Samuel N. C. Lieu

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Of all the heresies that threatened the unity of the early church, the followers of Mani occupied an exceptional position, as they were devotees not of Jesus but first and foremost of a ... More

Martyr Passions and Hagiography  

Susan Ashbrook Harvey

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
A large body of literature survives from the early Christian period, devoted first to accounts of martyrdom suffered on behalf of the emerging religion and then to lives of exemplary ... More

Martyrdom and the Cult of the Saints  

Richard M. Price

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
It is a mistake to suppose that the scientific history of the Christian church, worthy of continuing use, started only a few decades ago. Arguably, the best work with which to begin a ... More

Material Evidence (1): Archaeology  

Mark Humphries

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article on material evidence for early Christianity begins with examples of the intersection of archaeology, pseudo-archaeology, and media attention. Such instances demonstrate that ... More

Material Evidence (2): Visual Culture  

Robin M. Jensen

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Like other students of culture, historians of ancient Christianity deem the visual art, artefacts, and architecture of the early church as resources indispensable to discerning how various ... More

Monasticism  

William Harmless

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Christianity had ascetic commitments from its very foundation, in the words and deeds both of Jesus and of Paul. When it surfaced into legitimacy in the 310s, Christianity's deep-seated ... More

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