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Aldo Moro and Enrico Berlinguer  

Emanuele Bernardi

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Moro and Berlinguer were instrumental in the rapprochement between the Communist Party and Christian Democracy (DC) in the mid-1970s. As President of the DC, Moro identified cooperation ... More

Bureaucracy  

Simona Piattoni

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
The Italian state apparatus has been characterized by a mix of surprising continuity and substantial change. Adaptation was prompted not so much by attempts at reform as by pressures ... More

The Bureaucracy: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Service, and Other Government Departments  

Jeremy Greenstock

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
The exponential growth in the complexity of human exchange has led to two major developments in the protected world of the diplomat: the entry into intergovernmental business of most other ... More

Bureaucratic Politics in Israel  

Sharon Gilad and Nissim Cohen

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Studies of the Israeli public sector point to the vast influence of the Ministry of Finance (MOF) across multiple policy domains. This chapter combines bureaucratic politics research and ... More

C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite  

William Genieys

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jul 2016
This chapter examines The Power Elite, a radical work by C. Wright Mills that challenges the foundations of US liberal democracy and analyses the conditions under which democratic ... More

Christian Democracy: The  

Gianfranco Baldini

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Democrazia Cristiana (DC) was the cornerstone of the First Republic. Thanks to the Communist Party’s exclusion from government, the DC was the core of government, dominating the political ... More

Christian Democracy in Power, 1946–63  

Paolo Pombeni

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
The early postwar years marked a challenging and dynamic phase for Christian Democracy (DC). In this period, the party stabilized the county and shaped its democratic institutions in a ... More

Common Agency? Legislatures and Bureaucracies  

Mathew D. McCubbins

Print publication date:
Jun 2014
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
In all democracies, whether presidential or parliamentary, the chain of political delegation is a complex process involving a multitude of principals, many of which are frequently ... More

Communists  

Paolo Bellucci

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
The Italian Communist Party (PCI) has been the subject of sustained scholarly attention. The narrative of its development over the postwar period and beyond the fall of Soviet Communism is ... More

David B. Truman, The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion  

Wyn Grant

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jul 2016
This chapter examines David B. Truman’s book The Governmental Process(1951, 1971), which offers a classic pluralist analysis of interest groups and their relationships with political ... More

The Development of Congressional Elections  

Wendy J. Schiller

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
This article discusses the capacity of Congress elections to serve as an effective electoral mechanism in democracy. It discusses scholarship and studies that focuses on congressional ... More

Elections and Electoral Performance  

Nkwachukwu Orji

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Nov 2018
A crucial aspect of Nigeria’s political development involves imbibing, nurturing, and sustaining the political institutions and practices it inherited after its independence in 1960. ... More

Electoral System Change  

Alan Renwick

Print publication date:
Jun 2018
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Most research into electoral systems focuses on their effects. Only recently has a significant literature emerged examining how they are chosen. This chapter explores four core issues in ... More

Electoral System Effects on Party Systems  

Matthew S. Shugart and Rein Taagepera

Print publication date:
Jun 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The question of how electoral institutions affect party systems has been central to the literature on elections. For a given electoral system configuration, how many parties earn votes and ... More

The Electoral System of Israel  

Matthew S. Shugart

The electoral system of Israel is an “extreme” example of proportional representation because of its use of a single nationwide district. This feature has been a constant since 1949, while ... More

Electoral Systems and Constituency Service  

Brian F. Crisp and William M. Simoneau

Print publication date:
Jun 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Constituency service, addressing the nonpolicy grievances of constituents or looking out for their nonpolicy interests, provides legislators an opportunity to enhance their personal ... More

The Emergence of Parties and Party Systems  

Carles Boix

Print publication date:
Jul 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the emergence of parties and party systems. It summarizes the two main competing explanations of party systems, which are the neo-institutionalist research agenda ... More

The Evolution of Party Leadership  

Jeffery A. Jenkins

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
Party leadership has always been a focus of studies on leadership in Congress. From 1922 to 1991, party leadership has been the subject of many congressional studies. Today, party ... More

The Executive Branch in Israel  

Ofer Kenig

As in other parliamentary democracies, the Israeli government is dependent on the confidence of parliament. Israel is a country with a diverse society, divided by multidimensional ... More

Executive Dominance and Hyper-Presidentialism in Nigeria  

Yahaya Baba

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The chapter examines the crises that triggered the collapse of the colonially imposed parliamentary system in Nigeria. The parochial nature of regional structures and the fragility of ... More

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