Bo Feng and Hairong Feng
This chapter reviews existing research related to understanding the influence of culture on advice communication. Key theoretical frameworks and constructs that have been used to guide the study of advice and culture are reviewed, as are major patterns of findings about cultural similarities and differences in advice seeking, provision, and responses. Pragmatic implications for communication of advice in intercultural contexts are discussed as well. Attention is also given to challenges of researching advice across cultures, as well as to limitations of existing theories that have informed or developed out of this body of research. Directions for future research are suggested.
Erina L. MacGeorge and Lyn M. Van Swol
Advice has been studied in many different academic disciplines, such as communication, psychology, business, sociology, education, and public health. These disciplines examine advice across diverse personal and professional relationships, in a broad range of contexts, and as exchanged across the multiple media we use to communicate. However, scholars from diverse fields are often unaware of research on advice outside their home domains. This introductory chapter examines ways advice has been conceptualized and operationalized across disciplines. It also offers analyses of prototypical advice and its principal functions. Finally, it provides overviews of the other chapters in the Handbook, highlighting key intellectual contributions made by the authors.
Bo Feng, Xun Zhu, and Yining Zhou Malloch
This chapter focuses on advice communication in cyberspace. It discusses the relatively unique characteristics of advice seeking, provision, and reception via the Internet, using advice communication in traditional one-on-one, face-to-face, and personal relationship settings as a reference. Major theoretical frameworks that have informed the existing research on online advice, key research questions, and findings are reviewed. This chapter offers practical suggestions on effective advice communication online. It also discusses opportunities for future research in this area.
Jonathan D’Angelo and Anne-Lise D'Angelo
This chapter reviews the research and theory related to advice in health contexts. The focus is on interpersonal advice offered face-to-face or by phone from health professionals to laypeople. The first part of the chapter discusses who gives advice to whom and who seeks advice. Next, three elements that impact advice efficacy and utilization are considered: source factors, message factors, and receiver factors. The chapter then discusses the development and application of theories of advice in health contexts and identifies areas for future research. Finally, the chapter offers guidelines for those professionals in a position to provide health advice.
Changmin Duan, Sarah Knox, and Clara E. Hill
Advice giving in psychotherapy has been an area of interest for theorists and practitioners for a long time. However, clear and distinct answers to questions concerning the role of advice in client outcomes have not been as available as one would expect. This state of art may be related to discrepant theoretical positions and the lack of consistent empirical evidence. This chapter argues that some evidence does support advice giving in psychotherapy, depending on the cultural and social context as well as on client and therapist variables. This chapter reviews the literature, recommends a specific model for advice giving, and outlines future research directions.
Hansun Zhang Waring and Gahye Song
This chapter considers how advising has been researched in a range of educational settings, including academic (educational) counseling, professional supervision, peer tutoring, and parent-teacher conferences. Working with data collected from naturally occurring interaction and drawing upon a wide variety of analytical approaches, scholars of educational advising have offered important insights into how advice is given and received as well as the various issues and challenges featured in the advising encounter. These issues and challenges include tensions between clarity and politeness, development and assessment, and guidance and autonomy. The chapter concludes by considering the practical implications of the research so far and suggesting future directions for scholarship in educational advising.
Cassandra Carlson Hill
This chapter examines what is known and what requires further exploration in research on advice in family communication. Research about advice in families is largely drawn from human development, family therapy, and psychology, with only a few studies grounded in theories of advice and family communication. This chapter provides a synthetic review of this research, emphasizing who provides advice and how it functions across different types of familial relationships. The chapter also highlights relevant theoretical frameworks, including advice response theory, the integrated model of advice, and family systems theory. Finally, the chapter offers guidance specifically relevant to family members giving and receiving advice.
This chapter explores the nature of governmental policy advice, the roles and methods of governmental advisors, and the range of relationships that may exist between advisors and their clients. Three models of the advisor-client relationship are identified. Model I is the advisor as director, wherein the advisor tends to take control of the advising process, directing the client to take actions to achieve success in governance and policy making. Model II is the advisor as servant, in which the advisor merely responds to the demands of the client for help and guidance in a specific governmental task. Model III is the advisor as partner, wherein the advisor and the government official jointly manage and take co-ownership of the problem to be solved. Factors that lead to the adoption each of these models, the various advising styles that advisors employ, and their differing effects on the policy-making process are also explored.
Sara Branch and Elizabeth Dorrance Hall
Friendships and romantic relationships are characterized by enduring concern for each other’s welfare. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that advice, a form of social support, is common, expected, and even desired in intimate relationships. While much of the research on advice samples from friendships and romantic relationships, the influence of the specific relational context is often overlooked. This chapter addresses this limitation with a synthesis of theory and research from relationship science. Specifically, it explores the potential contributions of interdependence theory (Kelley & Thibaut, 1978), relationship turbulence theory (Solomon, Knobloch, Theiss, & McLaren, 2016), attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), and confirmation theory (Dailey, 2006) to understand how relationship cognitions affect advice outcomes. The chapter also discusses the intersections between these theories as applied to advice and shows how these theories can guide best practices of advising in close relationships.
Do-Yeong Kim and Sujin Son
This chapter advances understanding of the advice-taking behavior of protégés during the mentoring process in organizations. First, it reviews the extant literature regarding mentoring relationships in general. Next, it examines the possible key factors that influence protégés’ advice-taking behavior in mentoring relationships. Finally, it discusses directions for future research. Possible key factors influencing protégés’ advice-taking behavior in mentoring relationships are suggested, including mentor characteristics (mentor status and learning-goal orientation), protégé characteristics (cultural orientation and learning goal-orientation), and relational characteristics (relationship quality and trust in mentors).
Two bodies of research focus on advice messages and interactions. Conversation analysts provide detailed descriptions of advice messages and interaction sequences in naturally occurring interactions. Supportive communication scholars theorize how advice message features influence recipients’ emotional, problem solving, and relational outcomes. The two research paradigms differ, and although both contribute to an understanding of advice messages and interactions, they remain relatively unintegrated. This chapter reviews major findings from each paradigm. To demonstrate the potential for integration, two research programs that incorporate conversation analytic findings into theorizing about supportive communication are reviewed. The chapter concludes by proposing how to further extend theorizing about advice as supportive communication by integrating conversation analytic insights.
Lyn M. Van Swol, Jihyun Esther Paik, and Andrew Prahl
This chapter examines the psychology of advice recipients, focusing on research predominantly conducted using the Judge Advisor System, in which a participant “judge” receives advice from one or more advisors but has ultimate responsibility for making the decision. First, it reviews methods of typical Judge Advisor System experiments. Next, it surveys the research to explore why decision makers often do not seek out advice, focusing on the costs of advice and decision-maker overconfidence. It then examines why decision makers underutilize the advice they receive due to factors like confirmation bias, egocentric discounting, and power. In addition, factors that increase the utilization of advice, such as trust, advisor confidence, and advisor expertise, are considered. Finally, the influence of advice-recipient power and reception to computerized advice are examined in depth. Finally, advice to decision makers about how to seek and utilize advice to make better decisions is provided.
Erina L. MacGeorge and Lyn M. Van Swol
This chapter highlights cross-cutting themes from the research reviewed in this Handbook. Areas for theoretical integration across contexts and levels of analysis are also suggested. In addition, it summarizes the variety of methods used to study advice and makes suggestions for methodological synthesis and advancement. Finally, some of the best practices for giving advice offered by the other chapters in this volume are synthesized. The chapter concludes with reflections on the relationship between theory and application.
While categorization and indexicality have been a recurring theme in language and sexuality research, and forms of talk are understood as indexically related to social practices and categories in specific contexts, the dynamic character of categorization is less often acknowledged. Although few, if any, linguists would subscribe to an Aristotelian, static view of categorization, language and sexuality research has rarely engaged with the insights provided by prototype theory into linguistic categorization. This chapter intends to show that although categories are motivated, binding, and potentially wounding, they are flexible and subject to change, as are their indexical relations. Categorization is inevitable, but the specific categories we employ are historical constructs and thereby negotiable and redefinable. It is argued that understanding categorization and indexicality as dynamic can contribute to language and sexuality research, especially to the queer linguistic critique of categories with respect to the normative discourses sustaining them.
Research on HIV/AIDS in linguistics, linguistic anthropology, and literacy studies has followed the course of the pandemic from when it first became widely known in the United States, where early research focused on gay men and their communications with doctors, counselors, and each other in relation to risk and transmission. As time progressed, research shifted to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to focus on the discourse of prevention campaigns and public responses to risk reduction strategies. More recently, researchers have examined how people communicate about HIV/AIDS, focusing on how individuals interact with public health discourse in participatory approaches that change the way that HIV/AIDS is framed in educational and institutional contexts. Decades of research has shown a recurring gap in health communication about HIV/AIDS due to the imposition of a biomedical understanding of HIV/AIDS (the “healthworld”) on individuals’ situated perspectives and lived experiences within particular sociocultural contexts (the “lifeworld”).
Nicholas Longenbaugh and Maria Polinsky
This chapter summarizes major results in the domain of experimental approaches to ergativity, focusing on three major topics. First, it discusses studies that explore the competition between accusative and ergative alignment, where researchers have attempted to derive the typological preference for accusative alignment from processing- and learnability based constraints. Next, it examines studies concerning the interrelated issues of long-distance dependencies and agreement. The unique dissociation of case and argument-hood in ergative languages has afforded researchers new means of testing conclusions regarding the privileged grammatical status of subject, the relative import and function of case and agreement in the grammar, and the origins of constraints on extraction in ergative languages and beyond. Given that linguists have only recently begun to conduct experimental research on ergative languages, we conclude by suggesting areas for future research where ergativity might provide genuine insights rather than just replicate existing studies of accusative languages.
Lyn M. Van Swol and Andrew Prahl
This chapter overviews research on giving and receiving advice and information in small decision-making groups and organizational groups and networks. It highlights how the tendency for group members to discuss information all members already know in common before the group discussion results in the underutilization of advice from group members who possess novel information. It also discusses how employees often filter advice with bad news, and how organizations can build transactive memory systems or advice networks about whom to consult for advice. Transactive memory system can help highlight from whom to seek advice and can improve organizational performance. The chapter concludes with best practices for researchers, decision makers, advisors, and organizational managers, with an emphasis on how structuring the group and identifying expertise can improve the use of advice in groups.
In the contemporary world of second language teaching, most professionals largely take it for granted that language instruction is naturally divided into discrete skill sets, typically reflecting speaking, listening, reading, and writing, and usually arranged in this order. Based on the principles of Bloomfieldian linguistic analyses, the structural division of language teaching in the four skill areas has the learning objective of imitating the native speaker. The continual separation of the four skills lies at the core of research and testing in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Some current approaches to teaching language, however, strive to integrate the four skills in pedagogy whenever possible. This article begins with a brief look at the historic and methodological reasons for the continual separation of the four skills in teaching. Then it addresses the highly idiosyncratic and limited designs of major English language tests and concludes with an overview of the pedagogical and methodological currents in integrated language instruction.
Stephen Howard Browne
Advice is an inherently communicative act. Because it deals with human well-being, it is also, unavoidably, of ethical concern. The essays in this volume provide a wide and rich ground for speculating about the interplay of advice, communication, and ethics. This brief set of reflections discusses some of the features of advice that render it amenable to ethical analysis, and then considers the ethics of advising as understood from four ethical perspectives—deontology, consequentialism, virtue, and care. Throughout, the chapter highlights content from the chapters, ethical considerations for the practice of advising, and possible directions for further study.
The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the importance and necessity of bringing together the considerations of language and reproduction. While other topics of sexuality have aroused interest in sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology, the ideas, practices, and experiences of human reproduction, notably pregnancy, remain understudied. At the same time, a discussion of language has been largely absent from the anthropology of reproduction, which has emerged in the last twenty years as an especially vibrant area of cultural and social study. The chapter examines the metaphors and discourses or the “talk about” reproduction; the interactions and “talk between” people, like pregnant women and medical health care providers, which shapes the ordinary experiences of reproduction; the “talk to” parties (specifically, fetuses and imagined children) who themselves become constituted through talk; and reproduction as literacy event or one that is mediated and experienced in relation to texts. It is asserted that language is a practice of reproduction.