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Alexandria  

Marjorie S. Venit

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Distinguished in the first century bce as 'the first city of the civilized world', Alexandria still wore the accolade 'crown of all cities' as late as the fourth century bce. After Egypt's ... More

The Archaeology of Amarna  

Anna Stevens

This essay assesses the body of archaeological research connected to the New Kingdom settlement site of Amarna (ancient Akhetaten), the short-lived capital of Egypt founded by king ... More

An Archaeology of Spatiality in the Caribbean  

Christopher F. Altes

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Geographic information systems (GISs) are a broad category of spatial technologies for gathering, analyzing, and creating data. Such systems provide a means of managing, archiving, and ... More

Archaeology of the Maya Highlands  

Bárbara Arroyo

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The Guatemala highlands is an area of contrasting climate, topography, and agricultural potential. High basins and fertile valleys are situated among a series of mountain ranges from the ... More

Aztec Settlement History  

Larry Gorenflo and Christopher P. Garraty

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Focusing primarily on archaeological data from systematic regional surveys, this chapter examines settlement patterns in the Basin of Mexico during the Late Aztec period (A.D. 1350–1520) ... More

Aztec Urbanism: Cities and Towns  

Michael E. Smith

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
The predominant urban form in Aztec central Mexico was the capital of an altepetl; however, this chapter focuses on these cities and not on Tenochtitlan. Several such cities survive today ... More

Cities and Urbanism in Prehispanic Mesoamerica  

Richard E. Blanton

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Cities became an important and endurable characteristic of Mesoamerican civilization after 500 bc . This aspect of the Mesoamerican past was not widely recognized until the 1960s and ... More

A City Transformed: From Tenochtitlan to Mexico City in the Sixteenth Century  

Enrique Rodríguez-Alegría

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the Mexica capital, underwent a series of changes during and after the Conquest of 1521. These changes were both demographic and material, and they are the result of ... More

Communities in Ancient Mesoamerica  

Marcello A. Canuto and Jason Yaeger

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article reviews research showing the importance of an archaeology of communities for Mesoamerica. Methodologically, the community is situated between the scales of household and ... More

Complex Societies in the Southern Maya Lowlands: Their Development and Florescence in the Archaeological Record  

Arlen F. Chase and Diane Z. Chase

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article reviews archaeological evidence on the development of Maya civilization in the southern lowlands. The evolution of sociopolitical complexity in the southern Maya lowlands is ... More

Cultural Evolution in the Southern Highlands of Mexico: From the Emergence of Social Inequality and Urban Society to the Decline of Classic-Period States  

Christina Elson

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Oaxaca formed the core of a distinct zone within Mesoamerica often called the southern highlands. Covering some 2,000 square kilometers, the Oaxaca Valley is the geographic center of and ... More

The Development of Complex Societies in Formative-Period Pacific Guatemala and Chiapas  

Michael Love

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses the development of complex societies during the Formative period in the Pacific coastal plain, stretching from Chiapas, Mexico, to El Salvador. Data shows that a ... More

Dietary Transition in Late Holocene Eastern North America: The Orofacial Record of Masticatory Function, Nutritional Quality, and Health in Maize Farmers  

Clark Spencer Larsen

This chapter presents an overview of the record of reconstructing and interpreting diet from the study of craniofacial morphology and teeth, especially as the orofacial record pertains to ... More

Diversification and Cultural Construction of a Crop: The Case of Glutinous Rice and Waxy Cereals in the Food Cultures of Eastern Asia  

Dorian Q. Fuller and Cristina Castillo

Online publication date:
Jan 2016
Rice (Oryza) is one of the world’s most important and productive staple foods, with highly diverse uses and varieties. We use archaeobotany, culture, history, and ethnobotany to trace the ... More

Energy Gain and the Evolution of Organization  

Joseph A. Tainter and T. F. H. Allen

Online publication date:
Jul 2015
The evolution of complexity is one of the long-standing concerns of historical science, as well as being crucial to understanding the modern world and our future. This chapter explores the ... More

The First Century of the Town of Tornio: Urbanization on the Northern Edge of Europe  

Risto Nurmi

The town of Tornio, on the border of present-day Finland and Sweden, was founded in 1621, on the order of the King of Sweden, to replace the old medieval marketplace on the estuary of the ... More

The Formation of Complex Societies in Mesoamerica  

Christopher A. Pool

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The story of the Formative (Preclassic) period in Mesoamerica is fundamentally one of sociopolitical origins. That is, anthropological interest in this time span revolves around the ... More

Households in Ancient Mesoamerica: Domestic Social Organization, Status, Economies, and Rituals  

David M. Carballo

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Mesoamerican peoples built for themselves a wide array of domestic units, ranging from modest wattle-and-daub structures in the earliest villages to Teotihuacan's highly planned urban ... More

Ideology, Polity, and Social History of the Teotihuacan State  

Saburo Sugiyama

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The development of early complex societies in the Central Mexican Highlands resulted in particular local traditions. The region twice served as the heartland for densely populated ancient ... More

Indians, Africans, and Europeans: Social Pluralism in Early Colonial New York  

Katherine Hayes, Stephen Mrozowski, David Landon, and Heather Trigg

Online publication date:
Apr 2015
This chapter considers the example of Sylvester Manor’s plantation in coastal New York to demonstrate the diversity and complexity of the colonial context. Despite popular histories which ... More

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