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Animal Domestications  

Alan K. Outram

Print publication date:
Apr 2014
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
In this paper, different definitions of animal domestication are examined. Methods for identifying the domestication processes are outlined, including zooarchaeological and biomolecular techniques, ... More

Archaeological Evidence for Transport, Trade, and Exchange in the North American Arctic  

Jeffrey T. Rasic

Print publication date:
Oct 2016
Online publication date:
Aug 2016
A wide variety of materials, including lithics, manufactured goods, and food circulated within and between communities in the North American Arctic, including fish and sea-mammal oil, ... More

The Archaeological Record of Indian Ocean Engagements: Bay of Bengal (5000 bc–500 ad)  

Sunil Gupta

With the Bay of Bengal littoral as its focus, this chapter reviews the archaeological evidence for human expansions, migrations, formation of exchange networks, long-distance trade, ... More

The Archaeological Record of Indian Ocean Engagements in the Red Sea  

Eivind Heldaas Seland

This chapter reviews the evidence, nature, and development of maritime contacts in the Red Sea and from the Red Sea into the western Indian Ocean from the Neolithic until the start of the ... More

As the Whorl Turns: Function and Meaning in Mesoamerican Textile Production  

Geoffrey McCafferty and Sharisse McCafferty

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Woven textiles were highly prized commodities in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, to the extent that they were commonly used as tribute items and even as a standard of value in commercial ... More

Aztec Agricultural Production in a Historical Ecological Perspective  

Emily McClung de Tapia and Diana Martínez Yrizar

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
This chapter provides a brief discussion of the main themes relevant to historical ecology and how it differs from cultural ecology as used in Mesoamerican archaeology. A historical ... More

Aztec Agricultural Strategies: Intensification, Landesque Capital, and the Sociopolitics of Production  

Christopher Morehart

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
The Aztec Empire was built on an agricultural base. However, the relationships between agriculturalists and the state and the characteristics of farming systems were not monolithic. ... More

Aztec Metallurgy  

Dorothy Hosler

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Aztec artisans produced a spectacular, sophisticated, and technically versatile metallurgy. Although they had integrated certain materials and techniques from contemporaneous and earlier ... More

Aztec Obsidian Industries  

David M. Carballo and Alejandro Pastrana

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
Obsidian was the primary lithic or stone material used for cutting activities in Aztec society, including domestic food production, craft production, hunting, warfare, and ritual. The ... More

Central Mexican States and Imperial Tribute Systems  

Frances F. Berdan

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses central Mexican tribute systems. Tribute in central Mexican prehistory consisted of one-way movements of goods and labor from conquered polities to their conquerors. ... More

Ceramic Manufacture: The Approach  

Valentine Roux

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Jan 2017
This chapter presents an overview of the chaîne opératoire approach and recalls its relevance as a social and transmission signal. It describes the main components of the ceramic chaînes ... More

Ceramic Technology  

Peter Hommel

Print publication date:
Apr 2014
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Although the use of unfired clay and even the production of non-utilitarian ceramic artefacts by Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers has long been accepted, their role in the emergence and spread of ... More

Ceramic Technology and Production  

Prudence M. Rice

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses Mesoamerican ceramic technology and production. Some of the most beautiful art objects of the ancient Western Hemisphere were created by Mesoamerican potters. ... More

Crafting and Manufacturing in Mesoamerica: Critical Engagements with Theory and Method  

E. Christian Wells

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Production systems have long been an important subject of archaeological research in Mesoamerica. Studying how and why people formed particular groups and how those groups allocated labor ... More

The Domestication of Stone in Mesoamerica  

John Clark

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Mesoamericans mastered stone and made cutting, killing, and pounding tools capable of accomplishing all the tasks performed by hard metals in other preindustrial civilizations. The general ... More

Exchange as a Social Contract: A Perspective from the Microscale  

Joost Morsink

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This article discusses exchange as a process of interaction between two social personae creating a social contract. This process involves the establishment, negotiation, manipulation, and ... More

Historical zooarchaeology of colonialism, mercantilism, and indigenous dispossession: the Dutch East India Company’s meat industry at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa  

Adam R. Heinrich

Print publication date:
Mar 2017
Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The investigation of the Dutch East India Company’s (VOC) meat industry that was emplaced at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa reveals information about livestock production, slaughter, ... More

Hunter-Gatherer Diet, Subsistence, and Foodways  

Rick Schulting

Print publication date:
Apr 2014
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
This article addresses the nature of hunter-gatherer foodways, drawing on both ethnographic and archaeological examples from various parts of the world. There is much variability in how ... More

Iron and iron technology  

Timothy Champion

Iron production began in many parts of Europe during the late Bronze Age. Although initially comparatively rare, production steadily increased in volume and quality, and major centres ... More

Manufacture, Trade, and the Economy  

Matt Gibbs

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses the nature of manufacture, trade, and the economy in Egypt during the first three centuries of Roman rule. The human element of trade and manufacture is considered ... More

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