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1Corinthians  

Judith L. Kovacs

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
One of the earliest surviving Christian writings, Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians provides a fascinating picture of the life of one early Christian community and the challenges its ... More

Desire and the Body in the Patristic Period  

Mathew Kuefler

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
The period between the third and fifth centuries CE was crucial for the development of Christianity not least for ideas about desire and the body. Patristic writers hoped for the ... More

The First Millennium  

Mark Edwards

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
While Sceptics canvassed arguments against the existence of any gods, and Cynics were abrasive in their strictures on conventional religion, late antiquity offers no indubitable evidence ... More

Islamo-Christian Civilization  

Richard Bulliet

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
Under the general rubric of ‘Abrahamic Religions’ there is a sub-topic that highlights particular similarities between Islam and Christianity in areas of institutional and societal ... More

Jews and Muslims in Christian Law and History  

John Tolan

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
How does Christianity explain the existence of the two rival Abrahamic faiths, Judaism and Islam? What place does it allow in Christian society for Jews and Muslims? The responses to these ... More

Late Patristic Developments on the Trinity in the East  

Andrew Louth

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article examines Trinitarian theology in the fifth through the eighth centuries. It focuses on Cyril of Alexandria who served as a consolidator of Cappadocian doctrine, Dionysius the ... More

Luther on God and History  

Mark Thompson

Print publication date:
Apr 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Twentieth-century studies highlighted Luther’s extensive use of historical argument and his doctrine of God’s presence in and guidance of history, even though he doubted human ability to ... More

Marriage and Sexual Relations in the New Testament World  

William Loader

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
After a brief overview of the social context and role of marriage and sexuality in Jewish and Greco-Roman cultures, the chapter traces the impact of the Genesis creation narratives, ... More

Medieval Trinitarian Theology from the Late Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Centuries  

Russell L. Friedman

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article examines Trinitarian theology during the period from around 1250 until around 1500. It outlines some of the major positions and identifies their most important adherents. It ... More

Memory, Imagination, and the Interpretation of Scripture in the Middle Ages  

Mary Carruthers

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
In one of the most moving acts of his reign, when Charlemagne decided to collect a great library to build up the palace school of his court in Aachen, he did so first by bringing over from ... More

Narratives about the Apostles: Non-canonical Acts and Related Literature  

Richard Pervo

Print publication date:
Aug 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Following an introduction that seeks to locate stories about apostles within ancient (especially popular) narratives, the chapter presents analytic and critical summaries of three groups: ... More

Nineteenth-Century Protestant Doctrines of the Trinity  

Samuel M. Powell

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article aims to illustrate the prominent features of Trinitarian theology in nineteenth-century Protestant thought, focusing on developments in Germany. It shows that Friedrich ... More

The Origins, Scope, and Spread of the Millenarian Idea  

Peter B. Clarke

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
This article looks at the origins, force and scope of millenarianism, sometimes referred to as millennialism or messianism, and offers some idea of how widespread the belief has become. ... More

Renaissance and Reformation  

Denis J.-J. Robichaud

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Were there atheists and was there atheism in the Renaissance and the Reformation? There are no clear records for self-professed atheists at the twilight of the period, yet it is largely at ... More

Reproducing Medieval Christianity  

Ruth Mazo Karras

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This chapter examines three ways in which ideas about reproduction loomed large in medieval Christian culture: its relation to ideas about sexuality and nature, the somewhat overlapping ... More

Texts about Jesus: Non-canonical Gospels and Related Literature  

Jörg Frey

Print publication date:
Aug 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
As a general overview, the article explores the whole range of non-canonical texts about Jesus. Starting with aspects of the scholarly and public interest in those texts, and questions of ... More

The Wittenberg Circle  

Timothy J. Wengert

Print publication date:
Apr 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Luther’s reform efforts met success because of support from the team gathered in Wittenberg and beyond that carried out various aspects of reform. Luther’s Wittenberg colleagues, Philip ... More

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