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Analytic Philosophy of Religion  

William Hasker

Print publication date:
Jun 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
One could hardly describe the philosophical writings of the earlier stages as childish, let alone infantile. But the field of study itself was discernibly immature, and since then there ... More

Aquinas and Jewish and Islamic Authors  

David B. Burrell

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
The works of Plato and of Aristotle were made available to the Islamic people by virtue of Syriac translators from Greek into Arabic. Aristotle's Metaphysic offered the paradigm for ... More

Arguments for the Existence of God  

Brandon C. Look

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This chapter critically discusses Leibniz’s arguments for the existence of God. It explores Leibniz’s improvements on the traditional ontological arguments of Anselm and Descartes, as well ... More

Arguments for the Existence of God  

Graham Oppy

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article considers the following medieval philosophers—Philoponus, Anselm, Maimonides, Aquinas, and Scotus—all supposedly to have produced arguments that deserve the label “medieval ... More

Aristotle's Theology  

Stephen Menn

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
When Aristotle speaks of theologikê, he means not the study of a single God, but the study of gods and divine things in general. He never uses the phrase “the unmoved mover” to pick out ... More

Augustine to Aquinas (Latin-Christian Authors)  

Alexander Fidora

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Thomas Aquinas integrated the newly translated philosophical source that is Greek, Arabic, and Jewish authors into a unique synthesis with his own Christian tradition efficiently. The most ... More

Authorization and Representation in Hobbes’s Leviathan  

Al P. Martinich

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
In Leviathan, Hobbes holds that prospective subjects authorize a sovereign to represent them. Alienation of some rights to the sovereign typically follows upon authorization of him, and ... More

Biology and Religion  

Nancey Murphy and Jeffrey P. Schloss

Print publication date:
Jul 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article tries to deal with the issues of biology versus religion. This relates to a conflict between evolutionary and biblical accounts of Earth's history. The most important area ... More

Christianity and Civil Religion in Hobbes’s Leviathan  

Sarah Mortimer

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Hobbes was an unusual Christian, and one that recognized the potential power of the Christian story to strengthen (as well as to undermine) commonwealths. This chapter discusses the ... More

Conceptions of God  

Steven Nadler

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
This article examines the three ways in which God was conceptualized by leading philosophers in early modern Europe. Gottfried Leibniz and Nicholas Malebranche's rationalist God was ... More

Continental Philosophy of Religion  

Merold Westphal

Print publication date:
Jun 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The term continental philosophy is not much used on the European continent. In the English-speaking world it is used to signify thinkers, texts, and traditions from the European continent, ... More

Cosmological and Design Arguments  

Alexander R. Pruss and Richard M. Gale

Print publication date:
Jun 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Unlike the ontological argument, which appeals only to highly sophisticated philosophers who delight in highly abstract deductive reasoning, cosmological and design arguments figure ... More

Death and the Afterlife  

Lynne Rudder Baker

Print publication date:
Jun 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Death comes to all creatures, but human beings are unique in realizing that they will die. Hence, they are unique in being able to consider the possibility of life after death. Ideas of an ... More

The Definition of Death  

Stuart J. Youngner

Print publication date:
Feb 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Two factors, medical science's growing control over the timing of death and the increasingly desperate need for organs, have led to a reopening of the debate about the definition of death ... More

Divine Power, Goodness, and Knowledge  

William L. Rowe

Print publication date:
Jun 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
In the major religions of the West—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—the dominant theological tradition has long held that among the attributes constituting the nature of God are to be ... More

Divine Sovereignty and Aseity  

William E. Mann

Print publication date:
Jun 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Searching for a way to avoid the rude anthropomorphism of his contemporaries, the Presocratic philosopher Xenophanes said of God that “always he remains in the same state, in no way ... More

Ecclesiology, Ecumenism, and Toleration  

Maria Rosa Antognazza

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Mar 2017
This chapter discusses Leibniz’s conception of the Christian church, his life-long ecumenical efforts, and his stance toward religious toleration. Leibniz regarded the main Christian ... More

Epistemology in Philosophy of Religion  

Philip L. Quinn

Print publication date:
Oct 2005
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article focuses on the central problem of religious epistemology for monotheistic religions. It is divided into two main sections. The first section discusses arguments for God's ... More

Evidence in the phenomenology of religious experience  

Anthony J. Steinbock

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter addresses Immanuel Kant and the potential impasse of any philosophical account of religious experience. Various attempts within phenomenology are explored to broaden the ... More

Faith and Revelation  

C. Stephen Evans

Print publication date:
Jun 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The concepts of faith and revelation, though logically distinct, are related in a variety of ways. All of the great theistic religions, especially the Abrahamic faiths of Judaism, ... More

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