Bo Feng and Hairong Feng
This chapter reviews existing research related to understanding the influence of culture on advice communication. Key theoretical frameworks and constructs that have been used to guide the study of advice and culture are reviewed, as are major patterns of findings about cultural similarities and differences in advice seeking, provision, and responses. Pragmatic implications for communication of advice in intercultural contexts are discussed as well. Attention is also given to challenges of researching advice across cultures, as well as to limitations of existing theories that have informed or developed out of this body of research. Directions for future research are suggested.
Erina L. MacGeorge and Lyn M. Van Swol
Advice has been studied in many different academic disciplines, such as communication, psychology, business, sociology, education, and public health. These disciplines examine advice across diverse personal and professional relationships, in a broad range of contexts, and as exchanged across the multiple media we use to communicate. However, scholars from diverse fields are often unaware of research on advice outside their home domains. This introductory chapter examines ways advice has been conceptualized and operationalized across disciplines. It also offers analyses of prototypical advice and its principal functions. Finally, it provides overviews of the other chapters in the Handbook, highlighting key intellectual contributions made by the authors.
Bo Feng, Xun Zhu, and Yining Zhou Malloch
This chapter focuses on advice communication in cyberspace. It discusses the relatively unique characteristics of advice seeking, provision, and reception via the Internet, using advice communication in traditional one-on-one, face-to-face, and personal relationship settings as a reference. Major theoretical frameworks that have informed the existing research on online advice, key research questions, and findings are reviewed. This chapter offers practical suggestions on effective advice communication online. It also discusses opportunities for future research in this area.
Jonathan D’Angelo and Anne-Lise D'Angelo
This chapter reviews the research and theory related to advice in health contexts. The focus is on interpersonal advice offered face-to-face or by phone from health professionals to laypeople. The first part of the chapter discusses who gives advice to whom and who seeks advice. Next, three elements that impact advice efficacy and utilization are considered: source factors, message factors, and receiver factors. The chapter then discusses the development and application of theories of advice in health contexts and identifies areas for future research. Finally, the chapter offers guidelines for those professionals in a position to provide health advice.
Alexa Hepburn, Chloe Shaw, and Jonathan Potter
This chapter overviews research on advice in telephone helplines and considers some of the implications for application. It shows that by working with some basic features of advice delivery highlighted by conversation analysts, we can start to understand several elements of the different ways in which advice can be delivered. This also applied to some of the ways in which resistance is built. With respect to helplines, call takers typically are highly knowledgeable about the technical arena in which the call center is based, whereas callers have primary access to their financial situation, housing, locality, and all the myriad details of their lives. The chapter shows how these knowledge asymmetries and other delicate moral implications of giving and receiving advice, such as the way it imposes on recipients some future action that is appropriate, beneficial, required, and so on, can have important effects on both advice delivery and resistance.
Hansun Zhang Waring and Gahye Song
This chapter considers how advising has been researched in a range of educational settings, including academic (educational) counseling, professional supervision, peer tutoring, and parent-teacher conferences. Working with data collected from naturally occurring interaction and drawing upon a wide variety of analytical approaches, scholars of educational advising have offered important insights into how advice is given and received as well as the various issues and challenges featured in the advising encounter. These issues and challenges include tensions between clarity and politeness, development and assessment, and guidance and autonomy. The chapter concludes by considering the practical implications of the research so far and suggesting future directions for scholarship in educational advising.
Cassandra Carlson Hill
This chapter examines what is known and what requires further exploration in research on advice in family communication. Research about advice in families is largely drawn from human development, family therapy, and psychology, with only a few studies grounded in theories of advice and family communication. This chapter provides a synthetic review of this research, emphasizing who provides advice and how it functions across different types of familial relationships. The chapter also highlights relevant theoretical frameworks, including advice response theory, the integrated model of advice, and family systems theory. Finally, the chapter offers guidance specifically relevant to family members giving and receiving advice.
This chapter explores the nature of governmental policy advice, the roles and methods of governmental advisors, and the range of relationships that may exist between advisors and their clients. Three models of the advisor-client relationship are identified. Model I is the advisor as director, wherein the advisor tends to take control of the advising process, directing the client to take actions to achieve success in governance and policy making. Model II is the advisor as servant, in which the advisor merely responds to the demands of the client for help and guidance in a specific governmental task. Model III is the advisor as partner, wherein the advisor and the government official jointly manage and take co-ownership of the problem to be solved. Factors that lead to the adoption each of these models, the various advising styles that advisors employ, and their differing effects on the policy-making process are also explored.
Sara Branch and Elizabeth Dorrance Hall
Friendships and romantic relationships are characterized by enduring concern for each other’s welfare. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that advice, a form of social support, is common, expected, and even desired in intimate relationships. While much of the research on advice samples from friendships and romantic relationships, the influence of the specific relational context is often overlooked. This chapter addresses this limitation with a synthesis of theory and research from relationship science. Specifically, it explores the potential contributions of interdependence theory (Kelley & Thibaut, 1978), relationship turbulence theory (Solomon, Knobloch, Theiss, & McLaren, 2016), attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), and confirmation theory (Dailey, 2006) to understand how relationship cognitions affect advice outcomes. The chapter also discusses the intersections between these theories as applied to advice and shows how these theories can guide best practices of advising in close relationships.
Do-Yeong Kim and Sujin Son
This chapter advances understanding of the advice-taking behavior of protégés during the mentoring process in organizations. First, it reviews the extant literature regarding mentoring relationships in general. Next, it examines the possible key factors that influence protégés’ advice-taking behavior in mentoring relationships. Finally, it discusses directions for future research. Possible key factors influencing protégés’ advice-taking behavior in mentoring relationships are suggested, including mentor characteristics (mentor status and learning-goal orientation), protégé characteristics (cultural orientation and learning goal-orientation), and relational characteristics (relationship quality and trust in mentors).
The lawyer-client relationship is constituted through communication, and the lawyer’s advising role is a foundational element. This chapter begins by reviewing the most significant professional requirements impacting lawyers when advising clients. It then reviews the major models for advising in lawyer-client relationships. Attention is given to the methods employed in research on lawyer-client advising and some key findings of that research. Finally, it discusses best practices for lawyers in giving advice and for clients in receiving advice.
Silvia Bonaccio and Jihyun Esther Paik
This chapter reviews research related to the role of advice in workplace interactions. Indeed, advice is a ubiquitous aspect of work processes, and it is commonly sought, purchased, and received. The chapter first defines advice, reviews the benefits of advice taking, and explain findings related to advice discounting. In discussing factors that influence such behavior, the focus is on advisor characteristics (e.g., expertise, intentions, and confidence) and then on psychological states and traits of the decision maker that influence the receipt of advice. Next, the chapter discusses topics that are particularly important in the context of workplace relationship in relation to the aforementioned factors, which include seeking and purchasing advice, advisor motives, unsolicited advice, and withholding advice. The chapter concludes with methodological observations and ideas for future research, as well as with advice on giving advice.
Two bodies of research focus on advice messages and interactions. Conversation analysts provide detailed descriptions of advice messages and interaction sequences in naturally occurring interactions. Supportive communication scholars theorize how advice message features influence recipients’ emotional, problem solving, and relational outcomes. The two research paradigms differ, and although both contribute to an understanding of advice messages and interactions, they remain relatively unintegrated. This chapter reviews major findings from each paradigm. To demonstrate the potential for integration, two research programs that incorporate conversation analytic findings into theorizing about supportive communication are reviewed. The chapter concludes by proposing how to further extend theorizing about advice as supportive communication by integrating conversation analytic insights.
Erina L. MacGeorge and Lyn M. Van Swol
This chapter highlights cross-cutting themes from the research reviewed in this Handbook. Areas for theoretical integration across contexts and levels of analysis are also suggested. In addition, it summarizes the variety of methods used to study advice and makes suggestions for methodological synthesis and advancement. Finally, some of the best practices for giving advice offered by the other chapters in this volume are synthesized. The chapter concludes with reflections on the relationship between theory and application.
Charles E. DeBose
African American Church Language (AACL) refers to a distinctive sub-variety of African American Language (AAL) that is used in markedly sacred contexts. Given its frequent use in African American worship by fluent speakers of Standard English, it is not adequately characterized as dialect. The ability to communicate artfully and well is highly valued in African American culture, and cultivated through distinctive ways of speaking known in secular life by such names of signifyin and playin the dozens. In the domain of Black Church life they bear such names as preachin, prayin, testifyin, moanin and The Amen Corner. The diverse genres of Black performance have in common such African continuities as call and response, improvisation, poly-rhythms and a sacred to secular continuum. We conclude that AACL is best characterized, not as a dialect, but as a classical language, and the H variety in a situation of diglossia.
While African American male comedians have community license to deploy features of African American Language (AAL) as a tool for building solidarity and authority essential to successful performance, African American women seeking careers in comedy lack such license. As a result, they may face high levels of heckling and sexist harassment. The female comedians presented in this chapter employ a broadly vernacular AAL. But within it, they draw on features specifically associated with African American women to create a women’s style. This African American Women’s Language (AAWL) is a variety of AAL containing a multidimensional array of lexical, discursive, prosodic and other features associated with African American women conversing with close friends. The style that the comedians create builds a “friendship” and solidarity with female audience members which discourages the occurrence of sexist heckling and harassment.
Erica Britt and Tracey L. Weldon
The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of the emerging body of research aimed at examining the use and perception of African American English (AAE) by middle class speakers. While many scholars have pointed out that AAE falls on a continuum of social dialect features that reflect a speaker’s socioeconomic status, among other factors, the use of AAE by middle class speakers has often been overlooked in favor of the idealized, vernacular speech patterns of working class African Americans and urban African American male youth. Yet, an emerging body of research provides evidence that the use of AAE by middle class speakers is rich and dynamic, reflecting the complex social, economic, and professional domains that shape middle class African American life and linguistic behavior. Finally, we reflect on linguistic definitions of the AAE continuum vis-à-vis middle class speakers.
African American English in the Mississippi Delta: A Case Study of Copula Absence and r-Lessness in the Speech of African American Women in Coahoma County
The chapter presents a quantitative analysis of copula absence and /r/-lessness of African American English (AAE) by African American women in Coahoma County located in the Mississippi Delta. The results of the current quantitative study show that (1) there is a connection between Coahoma County AAE and older, diasporic AAE varieties and English-based Caribbean creoles through the analysis of copula absence; (2) there are statistical differences in the production of the two features based on the women’s township; and (3) the educational level of the women and of their parent(s) plays a role in the production of both features.
John Victor Singler
In the years from 1822 to 1860 and beyond, 16,000 African Americans immigrated to West Africa to a colony created for them that became the sovereign nation of Liberia. The language of the immigrants and their descendants, Liberian Settler English (LSE), is a source of evidence as to the character of the 19th African American English (AAE) that the original Settlers brought with them from the United States. The apparatus of internal change has had nearly two centuries in which to operate in LSE. Ongoing language contact has meant that LSE has been subject to a range of external linguistic forces. Nonetheless, this enclave variety shows individual AAE features to be of long standing, including ones that have been proposed as relatively recent innovations as well as those that resemble features of Gullah.
The study of African American folklore has been grounded from its beginnings in the colonial period in discourses and power dynamics of race. This chapter posits that these beginnings have given rise to two folkloristic traditions, with differing agendas, methodologies, aesthetics, relationships to black communities, and investments in race. The mainstream tradition has been aligned with scholarly trends within academe and has seldom focused explicitly on the most pressing concerns of black people, or on the most obvious influence on the creation and expression of black folklore, namely race. The other tradition has been more aligned with the political interests, racial histories, and day-to-day needs of African American communities. This chapter critically examines these two tributaries, relative to issues of race, arguing for an African American folklore and folklife studies that embraces an African American–centered political focus while encompassing the unique intellectual contributions of both.