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Author Profiling and Related Applications  

Michael P. Oakes

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Author profiling is the analysis of people’s writing in an attempt to find out which classes they belong to, such as gender, age group or native language. Many of the techniques for author ... More

Automated Writing Assistance  

Robert Dale

Online publication date:
May 2014
The ability to communicate in writing is an essential skill in modern society. But ability in writing varies considerably; and no matter what their existing level of competence, most ... More

Computational and Quantitative Approaches to Historical Phonology  

Brett Kessler

Print publication date:
Nov 2015
Online publication date:
May 2015
This chapter surveys methods of analysing phonological change that rely on computers because they require lengthy operations, mathematical precision, and reproducibility. Applications ... More

Computational Linguistics  

Karine Megerdoomian

Print publication date:
Aug 2018
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
This chapter introduces the fields of Computational Linguistics (CL)—the computational modelling of linguistic representations and theories—and Natural Language Processing (NLP)—the design ... More

Computational Linguistics  

Mark Steedman

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Temporality in computational linguistics and natural language processing can be considered from two aspects. One concerns the use of linguistic and philosophical theories of temporality in ... More

Computational Linguistics  

Graeme Hirst

Print publication date:
Mar 2013
Online publication date:
Jul 2013
Computational linguistics grew out of early projects in machine translation. Initially it was conceived of as a branch of artificial intelligence with the goal of complete human-like ... More

Computational Models of Second Language Sentence Processing  

Michael Harrington

Print publication date:
Sep 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Sentence comprehension draws on multiple levels of linguistic knowledge, including the phonological, orthographic, lexical, syntactic, and discoursal. This article focuses on the ... More

Computational Perspectives on Minimalism  

Edward P. Stabler

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
While research in the ‘principles and parameters’ tradition can be regarded as attributing as much as possible to universal grammar (UG) in order to understand how language acquisition is ... More

Computational Pragmatics  

Harry Bunt

Print publication date:
Jan 2017
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
This chapter presents a characterisation of the field of computational pragmatics, discusses some of the fundamental issues in the field, and provides a survey of recent developments. ... More

Computational Treatment of Multiword Expressions  

Carlos Ramisch and Aline Villavicencio

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
In natural-language processing, multiword expressions (MWEs) have been the focus of much attention in their many forms, including idioms, nominal compounds, verbal expressions, and ... More

Computer-Assisted Language Learning  

Carol A. Chapelle

Print publication date:
Sep 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Computer-assisted language learning, defined as “the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning”, covers a broad spectrum of concerns, but the ... More

Corpora  

Tony McEnery

Online publication date:
May 2016
In this chapter the use of corpora in natural-language processing (NLP) is overviewed. The chapter begins by defining what a corpus is. In doing so it introduces different types of corpora ... More

Deep Learning  

Kyunghyun Cho

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Deep learning has rapidly gained huge popularity among researchers in natural-language processing and computational linguistics in recent years. This chapter gives a comprehensive and ... More

Dialogue  

Raquel Fernández

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
Research on dialogue deals with the study of language as it is used in spontaneous conversation. Dialogue is a multi-agent activity that takes place in real time, with speakers interacting ... More

Discourse  

Massimo Poesio

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
Discourse is the area of linguistics concerned with the aspects of language use that go beyond the sentence—and in particular, with the study of coherence and salience. In this chapter we ... More

Evaluation  

Rebecca Passonneau and Inderjeet Mani

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
This chapter introduces a conceptual framework for the evaluation of natural language processing systems. It characterizes evaluation in terms of four dimensions: intrinsic versus ... More

Finite-State Technology  

Mans Hulden

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Finite-state machines—automata and transducers—are ubiquitous in natural-language processing and computational linguistics. This chapter introduces the fundamentals of finite-state ... More

Information Extraction  

Ralph Grishman

Online publication date:
Dec 2015
Information extraction constructs a structured knowledge representation from unstructured text, so that the knowledge may be further used for search, inference, and analysis. Given a ... More

Information Retrieval  

Qiaozhu Mei and Dragomir Radev

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
This chapter is a basic introduction to text information retrieval. Information Retrieval (IR) refers to the activities of obtaining information resources (usually in the form of textual ... More

Issues in Arabic Computational Linguistics  

Everhard Ditters

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article focuses on the current state of affairs in the field of Arabic computational linguistics. It begins by briefly monitoring relevant trends in phonetics and phonology, ... More

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